Thickeners, stabilisers & emulsifiers codes: 400–499; Subranges: 400–409 alginates, 410–419 natural gums, 420–429 other natural agents, 430–439 polyoxyethene compounds, 440–449 natural emulsifiers, 450–459 phosphates, 460–469 cellulose compounds, 470–489 fatty acids & compounds, 490–499 others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers:

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E400Alginic acidAlginic acid is a natural polysaccharide which is extracted from different seaweeds of the Phaeophycease family. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E401Sodium alginate Sodium Alginate is the sodium salt of alginic acid. Used in bakeries, dairies, dressings, sauces, and in the production of processed meats. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E402Potassium alginatePotassium alginate is the potassium salt of alginic acid. Used in salad dressings, cream cheese, cottage cheese, ice cream, processed cheese, and icing. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E403Ammonium alginateAmmonium alginate is the ammonium salt of alginic acid. Used in custard mixes, yoghurt, jelly, flavoured milk, artificial sweetener base, canned icing, cheese, as well as being used in slimming aids and indigestion tablets. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E404Calcium alginateCalcium alginate is the calcium salt of alginic acid. Used in salad dressings, and sauces. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E405Propanediol 1,2 alginatePropylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid. Used in fillings, emulsified sauces, cereals, cheese spreads. desserts, nut coatings, dairy products, chewing gum and dietary food supplements. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E406AgarAgar is a gelatinous substance obtained from the cell walls of red algae, primarily from members of the Gelidiacae, Sphaerococcaceae and Rhodophyceae seaweed families. Commercially it may be prepared from Gelidium amansii. It can be used as a vegetarian gelatin substitute, a thickener for soups and jellies, and as a clarifying agent in brewing. None known side effects in the concentrations used. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.safe-
E407CarrageenanCarrageenan is a natural polysaccharide that has been extracted from red seaweeds, Chrondrus crispus, Gigartina stellata, Euchema spinosum, E. cottonii, as a gelatinous substance. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating. It is suspected to have effects on the immune system and to cause cancer.avoid-
E407aProcessed eucheuma seaweed Processed euchuma seaweed is a natural polysaccharide that has been extracted from the red seaweed Euchema spinosum and Euchema cottonii, as a gelatinous substance. Used in beverages, and butter. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.suspicious-
E408FurcellaranFurcellaran is a natural sulphated polysaccharide that is extracted from the seaweed Furcellaria Fastigiata as a gelatinous substance.It is added to food as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabiliser. It is very similar to carrageenan. Daily Intake: Up to 75 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.unknown-
E409Arabinogalactan Larch GumArabinogalactan is a natural polysaccharide extracted by water from Western larch wood. It is used as a thickener in foods. Used in chewable tablets, chewing gum, bakery products, confectionary, chocolates, sugar-free foods, sauces, frozen fish, and mustard.unknown-
E410Locust bean gum, Carob bean gumCarob gum is a galactomannan vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua. Used in low-fat foods, cookies and biscuits, baked goods, ice-cream, dried fruit, liqueurs and vodkas, soft drinks, confectionary, marshmallows, toothpastes, and many more. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.safe-
E411Oat gum Oat gum is a natural polysaccharide produced from oats that is used as a stabiliser, and thickener in foods. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.unknown-
E412Guar gum, guaranGuar gum is a natural polysaccharide produced from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba. It is used as an emulsifier as it is very soluble but does not gel unless calcium or borax is added. It's also used as a thickener, as it is eight times more thickening than cornstarch. Guar gum is also used as a stabiliser as it prevent settling of solid particles. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.suspicious-
E413TragacanthTragacanth is a natural polysaccharide produced from the dried sap of genus Astragalus, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, and A. tragacanthus. It is used as an emulsifier, thickener, and stabiliser in foods. Used in many products including liquid diets, low calorie breads, and bakery goods. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.suspicious-
E414Acacia gum, Gum arabicGum arabic is a natural polysaccharide which is produced from the dried gum of the stems and branches of the Acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. The gum is water-soluble and used as a thickener, glazing agent, emulsifier, and as a stabiliser. It is easily broken down by the digestive system and is completely edible. Used as nutrient supplements (amino acids, vitamins particularly B-complexes), as processing aids, and as surface-active agents. May cause weak allergic reaction in some individuals. May act as an irritant. high concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.avoid-
E415Xanthan gumXanthan gum is a natural polysaccharide that is produced by the process of fermenting glucose or sucrose with a micro-organism Xanthomonas Campestris. This is especially seen in ready-made salad dressings. Xanthan gum is very soluble in a wide range of temperatures and pH. Used in sauces. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.safe-
E416Karaya gumGum Karaya is a natural polysaccharide obtained from the tree Sterculia Urens. It is used as a thickening agent, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods. It can be used in conjunction with E410 to increase the shelf-life of baked goods. Used in bakery products, and puddings. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating. It has laxative properties. suspicious-
E417Tara gumTara gum is a natural polysaccharide (glactomannan) obtained from the tree Cesalpinia Spinosa. It is produced by separating and grinding the endosperm of the C. spinosa seeds. Used in ice-creams, soft drinks, and bakery and baked goods. Daily Intake: (temporary ADI was specified at 0,25 mg/kg body weight). High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating. It has laxative properties. suspicious-
E418Gellan gumGellan gum is a natural polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas Elodea, although commercially it is prepared by aerobic submerged fermentation of Sphingomonas Elodea. It is soluble in water, and is used as a stabiliser, emulsifier, and a thickener in foods. It can also be used in lower quantities to reach the same gel strength as agar. Used in ice-cream, and bakery products. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating. It has laxative properties.suspicious-
E419Gum ghattiGum Ghatti is a natural polysaccharide that is the amorphous, translucent exudate of the Anogeissus Latifolia tree of the Combretaceae family. The exudate comes out in a soft plastic form with the colour varying form white to amber, and then ground into a nearly odourless, and tasteless powder. It is not completely soluble in water, around 80-90%, and forms a colloidal dispersion in both hot and cold water. This makes it an excellent emulsifying agent with a pH of 4.8. Used in cakes.unknown-
E420Sorbitol, Sorbitol syrupSorbitol is a natural carbohydrate alcohol, also known as glucitol - a sugar alcohol, that is metabolised slowly in the body. It is present in many berries and fruits from the genus Sorbus, but is commercially produced from glucose (dextrose). It has about 60% of the sweetness of sucrose (sugar), with a clean sweet taste that imparts a cooling sensation with no aftertaste. It is an anti-browning agent, a humectant to retain moisture in baked goods, adds texture, and is an anti-crystallisation agent. It can also be used synergistically with other sweeteners and blends well with gelling agents, proteins, and vegetable oils. May cause bloating and flatulence. In intolerant persons it can act as a laxative. It is not allowed for infants younger than 1 year of age, as it may cause severe diarrhoea.suspicious-
E421MannitolMannitol is a natural carbohydrate alcohol that is present in conifer, mushrooms and seaweed. Originally it was extracted from the manna ash tree, but commercially it is produced by the hydrogenation of invert sugar (glucose and fructose), sucrose and monosaccharides. It is used as an anti-browning agent, a humectant to retain moisture in baked goods, to add texture, and is an anti-crystallisation agent. It can also be used synergistically with other sweeteners, and its cooling effect is often used to mask bitter tastes. Daily Intake: Up to 160 mg/kg body weight. May cause bloating and flatulence. Large amounts may have a laxative effect and even cause diarrhea.avoid-
E422Glycerol, GlycerinGlycerol is a natural carbohydrate alcohol, also known as glycerin or glycerine. It is produced synthetically from propylene, or by the bacterial fermentation of sugars. It is used as a thickening agent in liquids, as a filler and bulking agent for low-fat foods, as a humectant in baked goods, as an anti-crystallisation agent in icings and confectionary, and as a sugar substitute. Glycerol is absorbed and metabolised as glucose (by the body) into fats. suspicious-
E424Curdlan gumCurdlan gum is a natural polysaccharide that is produced commercially by the bacterial fermentation of the mutant strain of Alcaligenes faecalis. It is tasteless and produces retortable, freezable elastic gels in food. It is also used to improve the texture of processed food, and acts as a firming agent, gelling agent, thickener, and stabiliser. Used in chocolate products and cocoa.unknown-
E425Konjac: Konjac gum, Konjac glucomannaneKonjac is a natural, water-soluble polysaccharide that has a low kilojoule count, and is considered to be a fibre (glucomannan). It is a highly viscous solution that is almost tasteless, and is used as a gelling agent, and emulsifier in foods. Certain confectionary products (jelly type sweets) containing konjac pose a serious choking risk, particularly to infants, children and the elderly because konjac fruit jelly does not melt readily in the mouth.suspicious-
E426Soybean hemicelluloseSoybean hemicellulose is a cell wall polysaccharide that is extracted from soy fibre using dilute sodium hydroxide. Soy fibre can be added to many different foods, and is available in many forms tailored to specific requirements. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, and thickener in foods. Used only in soft drinks.unknown-
E427Cassia gumCassia gum is a food additive made from the endosperm of Senna obtusifolia (also called Cassia obtusifolia or Cassia tora). It is used as a thickener and gelling agent. Cassia gum is currently (mid-2009) being used mainly in pet food applications. There is, however, a strong push to obtain human food approval in the US and EU. Approval has already been obtained in France, Belgium and Austria for human food applications.unknown-
E429PeptonesPeptones are a variable mixture of polypeptides, oligopeptides, and amino acids that are produced by the partial hydrolysis of casein, animal tissue, soy protein isolate, gelatin, defatted fatty tissue, egg albumin, or lactalbumin (whey protein). Peptones are produced from these proteins using proteolytic enzymes or by acids. Used mainly in beverages.unknown-
E430Polyoxyethene (8) stearatePolyoxyethene 8 stearate is a synthetic compound produced from a mixture of mono- and diesters of edible stearic acid, with polyoxyethylene diols. It is used as an emulsifier, gelling agent, stabiliser, and thickener in foods. Used in cakes, cake mixes, fillings, icings, pastries, and toppings. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E431Polyoxyethene (40) stearatePolyoxyethene 40 stearate is a synthetic compound produced from a mixture of mono- and diesters of edible stearic acid, with polyoxyethylene diols. It is used as an emulsifier, gelling agent, stabiliser, and thickener in foods. Used in bakery and baked goods. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E432Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monolaurate, Polysorbate 20Polyeyethene 20 is a synthetic compound produced from ethylene oxide, sorbital and lauric acid. Generally it is used in combination with other emulsifiers to disperse flavours and colours, improve texture in bakery goods, and to make essential oils and vitamins soluble. In many products. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E433Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monooleate, Polysorbate 80Polysorbate 80 is a synthetic compound that is produced by the esterification of polyethoxylated sorbitan and oleic acid. It produces a very viscous, water-soluble yellow liquid, which is then added to foods as an emulsifier. Used in cupcake mixes, pie tops, instant pasta and sauces, muesli bars, ice-cream, and instant soups. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E434Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate, Polysorbate 40Polysorbate 40 is a synthetic compound that is produced from ethylene oxide, sorbitol and palmitic acid. It is used as an emulsifier, and thickener in foods. Used in spices, cereal, chewing gum, and canned fruit drinks. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E435Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monostearate, Polysorbate 60Polysorbate 60 is a synthetic compound that is produced from ethylene oxide, sorbitol and stearic acid. It is used as an emulsifier, and thickener in foods. Used in soups, breads, biscuits and cakes, frozen desserts, sauces, cream, crisps, spreads, jams, chocolate, margarine, quick-setting deserts, and milk shakes. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E436Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan tristearate, Polysorbate 65Polysorbate 65 is a synthetic compound, that is produced from ethylene oxide, sorbitol and stearic acid. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, and in aerosol sprays. Used in UHT milk, low-calorie cream, many pasturised products, and laxatives. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E440Pectins: Pectin, Amidated pectinPectin is a naturally occurring polysaccharide found in many ripe fruit especially in apples, blackberries, oranges, and citrus fruit. It is commercially produced and extracted from the pulp of apples and orange peels to form a white to light brown powder. The main use for pectin is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabiliser in food. It is thermo-irreversible, meaning when it is heated it will remain a liquid. Used rarely. It may cause intestinal problems when present in high concentrations. May cause bloating and flatulence.suspicious-
E441GelatineGelatin is a natural protein produced from the partial hydrolysis of collagen that is extracted from tissue, organs, bones, and some intestines of animals. This is no longer considered a food additive and is now considered a food. Can not be used by vegans and vegetarians. Use by religious groups, such as Muslims and Jews is restricted, due to the origin of the product. Unfortunately information on origin can only be obtained from the producer. Specific halal gelatin is made from cattle.suspicious-
E442Ammonium phosphatidesAmmonium phosphatides are a natural carbohydrate alcohol. It is commercially produced either 1) synthetically from propene, 2) by bacterial fermentation of sugars, or 3) by the mixture of glycerol and partial hardened rapeseed oil. It is used mainly as an emulsifier to allow the combination of fats, oils and water, and as a stabiliser to prevent separation. Used in many products including pasteurised products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods etc. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. The use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be completed excluded.suspicious-
E443Brominated vegetable oil, BVOBrominated vegetable oil is a vegetable oil that has its atoms bonded to the element bromine. This is done so the density of the vegetable oil is equal to that of the water used in drinks. It is used as an emulsifier to help preserve natural and artificial citrus flavours, and to stay suspended in the drinks. Used in many products including pasteurised products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods etc. In very large quantities can produce bromism (which results in somnolence, psychosis, seizures and delirium).avoid-
E444Sucrose acetate isobutyrateSucrose acetate isobutyrate is a natural high purity sucrose acetate that is produced by the esterification of natural sucrose. It is a tasteless light yellow, highly viscous liquid, used as a stabiliser, and emulsifier in drinks. It has the ability to change the density and cloudiness of soft drinks. Used in many products including pasteurised products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods etc.unknown-
E445Glycerol esters of wood rosinsGlycerol esters of wood rosin are produced by harvesting wood rosin from the stumps of the longleaf pine, Pinus Palustris. The wood rosin is extracted by solvent extraction, and refined to form an ester gum that is used as an emulsifiers in beverages. Used in many products including pasteurised products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods etc.unknown-
E446SuccistearinSuccistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate) is produced by the reaction of succinic anhydride, propylene glycol, and fully hydrogenated vegetable oil. It is used as an emulsifier in or with shortenings and edible oils, to help improve the tenderness in baked goods and bakery items. Used in foods such as dairy-based drinks, processed cheese, fat spreads, processed fruits, confectionary, bakery products, processed meats, beer and wines. Not permitted in Australia.unknown-
E450Diphosphates: Dicalcium diphosphate, Sodium and potassium pyrophosphatesPolyphosphates are the salts of sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium with phosphates. These are all produced synthetically from their respective carbonates and phosphoric acid, to produce a mineral salt that is used as a stabiliser, acidity regulator, sequestrant, and emulsifier in foods. It is also used to help retain water during processing and storage. Used in many products such as soy milk, pate and processed meats, beer, ice-cream, milk shakes, sweetened condensed milk, sauces and desserts. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism. unknown-
E451Triphosphates: Sodium triphosphate, Pentapotassium triphosphateTrisphosphates are inorganic chemicals that are the sodium and potassium salts of phosphoric acid. These are prepared synthetically from their respective carbonates and phosphoric acid, to produce a mineral salt that is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, and buffer in foods. It is also used as a water-retaining agent during processing. Used in many products including soft drinks, whitener, low-fat and reduced fat foods, cream, cheeses, spreads, dairy based desserts (puddings, custards etc), confectionary, batters, etc. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism. unknown-
E452Polyphosphates: Sodium polyphosphates, Potassium polyphosphates, Sodium calcium polyphosphate, Calcium polyphosphates, Ammonium polyphosphatePolyphosphates are the salts of sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium with phosphate. These are all produced synthetically from their respective carbonates and phosphoric acid to produce a mineral salt that is used as a stabiliser, sequestrant, and emulsifier in food. It is also used to help retain water during processing and storage. Used in many products. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism. unknown-
E459Beta-cyclodextrinCyclodextrins are produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion to produce a white crystalline powder. It also has the ability to turn liquid food into solid food, and to remove any bitter taste or odour. It is used as an anti-oxidant to prevent oxidation and spoilage, and as an emulsifier, and thickener. Used in many products.unknown-
E460Cellulose: Microcrystalline cellulose, Powdered celluloseCellulose is a natural polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and cotton. It produces a crystalline powder that is used as an anti-caking agent, emulsifier, thickener, and as a source of dietary fibre. Used in whipped cream, ice-cream, cakes, baked goods, dairy foods, dehydrated potatoes, hot-chocolate mix, and sponge puddings. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E461Methyl celluloseMethyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and cotton. It produces a hydrophilic powder that when dissolved, forms a clear viscous gel used as a thickener, and emulsifier in many foods. Used in many products including bakery products, whipped products and fats, dairy-based drinks, yoghurts, edible ices, batters, breakfast cereals etc. Also used to help produce stable foam in whipped products, better aeration in high fat recipes and other foods. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E462Ethyl celluloseEthyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood that is chemically ethylated. It produces a hydrophilic powder that is dissolved to form a clear viscous gel, which is used as a thickener, filler, anti-clumping agent, and emulsifier in many foods. Used to stabilise soups, dairy desserts, mayonnaise and margarine. It can also be found in chewing gum, coffee and tea beverages with added dairy ingredients, and as a protective coating on some fresh fruit. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.unknown-
E463Hydroxypropyl celluloseHydroxypropyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically propylated. It produces a hydrophilic powder that is dissolved to form a clear viscous gel, which is used as a thickener, filler, anti-clumping agent, and emulsifier in many foods. Used in chewing gum, cereals, heat treated meat, dairy based drinks, dairy based desserts, fruit based desserts, cocoa mixes, weight reduction formulae, and electrolyte drinks. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E464Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, HypromelloseHydroxy propyl methyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic visco-elastic polymer polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically modified. It produces a solid off-white powder, and when dissolved in water forms colloids which are then used as emulsifiers, thickeners, stabilisers, and as bulking agents in many food products. Used in milk powder for baby formula, imitation milk powders, icings, chewing gum, coffee whitener, bakery and pastry products, butter, and cake mixes. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E465Ethyl methyl celluloseMethyl ethyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polymer polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically modified. It produces a solid off-white powder and when dissolved in water forms colloids which are then used as thickeners, stabiliser, foaming agent, and emulsifiers in many food products. Especially used in cheaper chocolate as a cocoa butter substitute, used in toppings and cake mixes, icings, low-fat spreads, salad dressings, and chocolate lollies. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E466Carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl celluloseCarboxymethylcellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically modified with chloroacetic acid. It produces a solid off-white powder and when dissolved in water forms colloids which are then used as thickeners, and emulsifiers in many food products. Used in bakery products, soft drinks, ice-cream, and processed meats. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea. It also lowers slightly the blood cholesterol level. suspicious-
E467Ethulose, Ethyl hydroxyethyl celluloseEthyl hydroxyethyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically modified by treatment with alkali, ethylene oxide, and ethyl chloride. It produces hygroscopic white or slightly yellowish or greyish, odourless granules, or fine powder. It is soluble in water to produce a clear to slightly cloudy, viscous, and colloidal solution. This solution is then used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in many food products. It's used in brewing, as a salt substitute (as salt-free, sodium-free, and low-sodium products), gelling agent, and in reduced sodium breads.unknown-
E468Crosslinked sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, CroscarmelloseCross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is semi-synthetic polysaccharide that is produced by acidifying sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (E466) and heating it until the suspension is able to achieve cross-linking. Once this has occurred, the product is washed, dried, and is ready to be dissolved in water for use as a emulsifier in foods. Used in chewing gum, butter flavours, bakery products, dietary supplements, soft drinks, and artificial sweeteners.suspicious-
E469Enzymically hydrolysed carboxy methyl celluloseEnzymatically hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide which is the sodium salt of a carboxymethyl ether of cellulose, hydrolyzed enzymatically with Trichoderma longibrachiatum under mild acidic conditions. Primarily it is used as a stabiliser with fat-extending properties. Used in dairy fat blends, chewing gum, vinegar, soups, jellies, beer and malt beverages, fermented fruit products, powdered milk, immitation chocolate, water based flavoured drinks (sports, energy or electrolyte drinks), pre-cooked pastas and more.suspicious-
E470aSodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acidsSodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids are the salts of natural fatty acids. They are produced mainly from plant origin, but can also be produced from the fats of animals. The acids are a mixture of stearic-, oleic-, palmitic- and myristinic acids, and are used as emulsifiers in foods. In bakery products, chewing gum, cocoa, chocolate, coffee, frostings and sweet sauces, hard and soft confectionary, to wax fruit and vegetables, and in water based flavoured drinks (including sport, energy, or electrolyte drinks). The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E470bMagnesium salts of fatty acidsMagnesium salts of fatty acids are the magnesium salts of natural fatty acids. They are produced mainly from plant origin, but can also be produced from the fats of animals. The acids are a mixture of stearic-, oleic-, palmitic- and myristinic acids. At room temperature it is a solid white substance, that is insoluble in water. It is used as an anti-caking agent, emulsifier, stabiliser, and thickener in foods. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E471Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, Glyceryl monostearate, Glyceryl distearateMono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) are produced from glyceryl and natural fatty acids, primarily from hydrogenated soya bean oil. This additive produces a white or cream coloured waxy solid which is used as an emulsifier in food. Used in products that need aeration such as toppings, cake mixes, icing, and coffee whitener. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472aAcetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsAcetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids, and acetic acid. This produces a product with varying consistencies from liquids to solids, white to pale yellow in colour, with an acetic acid odour. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472bLactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsLactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids, and lactic acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472cCitric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsCitric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids, and citric acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472dTartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsTartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids, and tartaric acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: 30 mg/kg bodyweight of tartaric acid. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E472eMono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsEsters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: 30 mg/kg bodyweight of tartaric acid. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472fMixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsEsters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: 30 mg/kg bodyweight of tartaric acid. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472gSuccinylated monoglyceridesA mixture of succinic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides produced by the succinylation of a product obtained by the glycerolysis of edible fats and oils, or by the direct esterification of glycerol with edible fat-forming fatty acids.unknown-
E473Sucrose esters of fatty acidsSucrose fatty acid esters are the mono, di and triesters of sucrose with edible fatty acids. The fatty acids are mainly derived from plants, but can also be animal fats. The product is usually a mixtures of different components that has been produced in the presence of some sort of solvent. Sucrose esters of fatty acids are used as emulsifiers, and stabilisers in foods. Used in bakery goods, dairy products, chewing gum, and soft drinks. Daily Intake: 16 mg/kg body weight. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E474SucroglyceridesSucroglycerides are a mixture of mono- and diesters of sucrose and fatty acids with mono-, di- and triglycerides from fat or oil. It is produced by reacting the sucrose and fat/oil together with or without the presence of a solvent. Usually the solvent is either dimethyl formamide, cyclohexane, isobutanol, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser and thickener in many foods. Used in bakery and baked goods, whipping agents, salad dressings, soups, and non-dairy creamers. ome sort of solvent. Sucrose esters of fatty acids are used as emulsifiers, and stabilisers in foods. Used in bakery goods, dairy products, chewing gum, and soft drinks. Daily Intake: 16 mg/kg body weight. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.suspicious-
E475Polyglycerol esters of fatty acidsPolyglycerol esters of fatty acids are natural products produced by the combination of polyglycerol, and natural fats derived from as soybean, rapeseed and maize. The fatty acid may also be obtained from animal fats. The end product is generally a mixture of different components, which are then used as emulsifiers is some foods. Used in bakery and baked goods, whipping agents, salad dressings, soups, and non-dairy creamers. Daily Intake: 25 mg/kg body weight. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E476Polyglycerol polyricinoleatePolyglycerol polyricinoleate is a natural product that is produced by the combination of polyglycerol, and castor oil (the oil from the Ricinus sp tree). The end product is generally a mixture of different components and is a yellowish, viscous liquid which is used as an emulsifier in some foods. As an emulsifier it improves fluidity of some liquids especially chocolate, and also enables coatings to be thinly spread, like spreads and salad dressings. See also E498. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: Up to 7.5 mg/kg body weight .safe-
E477Propanediol 1,2 esters of fatty acids, Propylene glycol esters of fatty acidsPropylene glycol esters of fatty acids are produced by the esterification or transesterification of propylene glycol and fatty acids. The fatty acids are normally derived from plant origin, but may also contain animal fats. This results in a white or cream coloured waxy solid, or white to yellow beads or flakes. These are used as emulsifiers, and stabilisers in foods. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for propylene glycol. High concentrations of propyleneglycol can cause eczema in sensitive persons. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.suspicious-
E478Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1, 2-diol are made from the reaction of propylene glucol ester with lactic acid, propanediol, and natural fats. The fats are normally derived from plant origin, but fats of animal origin may also be used. The resulting product is used as an emulsifier and stabiliser in foods. Used in bakery products, and used as a conditioning agent for dehydrated potatoes. to yellow beads or flakes. These are used as emulsifiers, and stabilisers in foods. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for propylene glycol. High concentrations of propyleneglycol can cause eczema in sensitive persons. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E479bThermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsEsterified soy oil is a thermally oxidized soy bean oil that is mixed with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (mainly from plant origin, but animal origin may also be used). This produces a pale yellow to light brown solid or waxy substance which is used as an emulsifier in foods. Used in bakery products, and used as a conditioning agent for dehydrated potatoes. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.suspicious-
E480Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinateDioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate is the dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinate. It is produced by the reaction of octane with maleic acid anhydride, followed by the reaction with sodium bisulphite. It produces a pure, white waxy solid that is very soluble in many liquids, and is used as an emulsifier in foods. Used as an emulsifier in or with egg whites, as a whipping agent in marshmallows, as a surfactant in dry beverage base and fruit juice drinks that have been acidulated with fumaric acid, and in crude vegetable oils and animal fats. Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. The product acts as a laxative.unknown-
E481Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylateSodium stearoyl lactate is an organic compound produced by combining stearic acid and lactic acid, with sodium hydroxide. It is used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in baked and bakery products, and in other foods. Used in bakery goods, breads, cakes mixes, whipped vegetable oil toppings, 

icings, frozen desserts, non-dairy milk and creamer etc. Daily Intake: Up to 20 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E482Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylateCalcium stearoyl lactate is an organic compound produced by combining stearic acid and lactic acid, with calcium hydroxide. The end result is a calcium salt which can be a white or slightly yellow powder, or a brittle solid with a characteristic odour, that is slightly soluble in hot water. It is used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in bakery and baked goods, and in other foods. Used in the dehydration of grapes to produce raisins, crystallisation of sucrose, and as a synthetic flavouring substance in foods. Daily Intake: Up to 20 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E483Stearyl tartrateStearyl tartrate is produced by the esterification of tartaric acid with stearyl alcohol. The stearyl acid can be either plant or animal fat, though usually it is derived from vegetable oil. Stearyl tartrate is a cream coloured oily substance, that is mainly used as a dough strengthening agent, emulsifier, and stabiliser in foods. Used in margarine, baked goods, poultry, seasonings, alcoholic beverages, flavourings, wine, frostings, frozen dairy products, confectionary, chocolates, sweetened coconut, chewing gum, prepared food and vegetables, nut products, including artificial sweetener bases, and carrier liquid for food colours and flavourings (essences). Daily Intake: Up to 20 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E484Stearyl citrateStearyl citrate is produced by the esterification of citric acid with stearyl alcohol. The stearyl acid can be either plant or animal fat, though usually it is derived from vegetable oil. Stearyl citrate is a cream coloured oily substance, that is mainly used as an emulsifier, and sequestrant in food. Used as an emulsifier in cake mixes, imitation whipped cream, baked good, and puddings. Daily Intake: Up to 50 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E485Sodium stearoyl fumarateSodium stearoyl fumarate is an organic compound produced by combining stearic acid and fumaric acid with sodium hydroxide. The end result is a sodium salt that can be a white-slightly yellowish powder, or a brittle solid with a characteristic odour. This product is then used as an emulsifier, a flour treatment agent to strengthen dough, and as a conditioning agent in food. Used in compounded chocolate, and cake mixes.unknown-
E486Calcium stearoyl fumarateCalcium stearoyl fumarate is an organic compound produced by combining stearic acid and fumaric acid, with calcium hydroxide. The end result is a calcium salt which can be a white-slightly yellowish powder, or a brittle solid with a characteristic odour. This product is then used as an emulsifier, a flour treatment agent to strengthen dough, and as a conditioning agent in food. Application not known.unknown-
E487Sodium laurylsulphateSodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is an anionic surfactant (detergent) which is commercially synthesised from sulphuric acid as sulphuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt, or naturally from coconut and/or palm oil kernels. It occurs as white or cream coloured crystals, flakes, powder, or as a clear to yellowish thick liquid, with a slight odour of fatty substances. One end of the molecule is charged and is extremely soluble is water, while the other end is non-polar and is soluble in fats. It is this property that makes it suitable for use as an emulsifier, and thickener in foods. Used in ice-cream.unknown-
E488Ethoxylated Mono- and Di-GlyceridesEthoxylated mono- and di-glycerides (polyoxyethylene 20) and mono- and di- glycerides of fatty acids (polyglycerate 60) are anionic surfactants (detergents). A mono-glyceride is made of one fatty acid attached to glycerol, and a di-glyceride is made of two fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule. One end of the molecule (glycerol) is very soluble is water, while the other end (the fatty acid) is soluble in fats. It is this property that makes them suitable for use as emulsifiers in foods. They also act as crumb softeners, and dough strengtheners to allow for higher rising. Used in a range of products.unknown-
E489Methyl glucoside-coconut oil esterMethyl glucoside-coconut oil ester is an organic compound derived from coconut oil. It forms odourless, white crystals that are soluble in water. It is used as a processing aid in the crystallisation of sucrose and dextrose, as a surfactant (detergent) in molasses, and as an emulsifier, humectant, and synthetic flavouring substance in foods. Application not known.unknown-
E490Propanediol 1,2Propane 1,2-diol also known as propylene glycol, is an organic compound that is commercially produced by the hydration of propylene oxide, but can also be derived from glycerol. This results in a hygroscopic, odourless, colourless, viscous liquid that is tasteless, and is soluble in water and acetone. It is used as a humectant, solvent stabiliser for food colours and flavourings, has anti-microbial properties that inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria, and as a carrier (for colours, emulsifiers, anti-oxidants and enzymes). See also E1520. Used in milk powders and milk replacer feeds. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations cause eczema.unknown-
E491Sorbitan monostearateSorbitan monostearate is produced from an ester of sorbitan and stearic acid. It produces a waxy-like cream powder that is very soluble in water. This product is then used as an emulsifier, defoaming and flavour dispersing agent in food. Used in toppings and cake mixes, chocolate, icings, low-fat spreads, salad dressings, chocolate lollies, and as a pan releasing agent and tin grease emulsion. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E492Sorbitan tristearateSorbitan tristearate is produced from an ester of sorbitan and stearic acid. It produces a waxy-like cream powder that is soluble in hot water, which is then used as an emulsifier, and wetting agent in food. Application not known. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E493Sorbitan monolaurateSorbitan monolaurate is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol, and it mono- and dianhydrides with lauric acid - a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin. Used predominately in batters for frozen foods, puddings, desserts, custards, sauces, mayonnaise, salad dressings, pies and fillings, and instant beverages and dried foods. Other foods include Used in fermented milk, drinking yoghurt, flavoured milks, whipped creams, unripened cheese, whey products, fat-based desserts, semi-preserved or frozen fish and some seafood, coffee, coffee substitutes, tea, herbals teats, hot cereal, breakfast oats, pre-cooked pastas and noodles, starch based desserts (rice pudding, tapioca), dried or heat-coagulated eggs, confectionary, and many more. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E494Sorbitan monooleateSorbitan monooleate is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol, and its mono- and dianhydrides with oleic acid - a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin. Used in processed cheese, fat spreads, fat-based desserts, processed fruit, dried vegetables, canned or bottled vegetables, cooked or fried vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pastas, batters, bakery wares, processed meat and pultry, semi-preserved fish and fish products, egg-based desserts, seasonings and condiments, soups and broths. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E495Sorbitan monopalmitateSorbitan monopalmitate is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides with palmitic acid (a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin). Used in processed cheese, fat spreads, fat-based desserts, processed fruit, dried vegetables, canned or bottled vegetables, cooked or fried vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pastas, batters, bakery wares, processed meat and poultry, semi-preserved fish and fish products, egg-based desserts, seasonings and condiments, soups and broths. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E496Sorbitan trioleateSorbitan trioleat is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial tri-esters of sorbitol, and its mono- and dianhydrides with oleic acid - a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin. Used in processed cheese, fat spreads, fat-based desserts, processed fruit, dried vegetables, canned or bottled vegetables, cooked or fried vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pastas, batters, bakery wares, processed meat and poultry, semi-preserved fish and fish products, egg-based desserts, seasonings and condiments, soups and broths.unknown-
E497Polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymersPolyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymers are non-ionic surfactants used as emulsifiers, thickeners, gelling agents, and stabilisers in foods.unknown-
E498Partial polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oilPolyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil, is a natural product that is produced by the combination of polyglycerol, and castor oil (the oil from the Ricinus sp tree). As an emulsifier it improves fluidity of some liquids, especially chocolate and also enables coatings to be spread thinly, like spreads and salad dressings. See also E476.unknown-
E499Cassia gum 2Cassia gum is a natural polysaccharide that is produced from the endosperm of the Senna Obstusifolia plant, also known as Cassia tora. It is used as an emulsifier, and gelling agent in foods. It is hardly used. See also E427.unknown-



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