Food additives – Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous codes: 900–999; Subranges: 900–909 waxes, 910–919 synthetic glazes, 920–929 improving agents, 930–949 packaging gases, 950–969 sweeteners, 990–999 foaming agents.
Here there is a list with food additives used as miscellaneous.

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E900Dimethyl polysiloxane, PDMS dimethiconeDimethylpolysiloxane and Polydimethylsiloxane are the most common synthetic polymer of the siloxane polymer group, commonly known as silicones. They are used as anti-caking and anti-foaming agents. Used in many Asian dishes. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : Up to 1,5 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E901Beeswax , white and yellowNatural polymer produces by bees. The white wax is bleached by sunlight or hydrogen peroxide. The wax is an exudate of the bees and some vegans accept this product.unknown-
E902Candelilla waxNatural polymer produced from the Mexican trees Euphorbia antisyphilitica , E. cerifera and Pedilanthus pavonis.unknown-
E903Carnauba wax, Brazil wax , Palm waxNatural polymer produced from the leaves of the Carnauba palm (Copernica cerifera) in Brazil. The wax is a hard yellow-brown wax. It is obtained from the leaves of the carnauba palm by collecting them, beating them to loosen the wax, then refining and bleaching the wax. It has a glossy finish, acts as a lubricant, and is an anti-caking, and surface finishing agent which makes it ideal for use in many food products. It is also widely used in cosmetics. Canauba wax is widely used in cosmetics and can cause dermal eczema.unknown-
E904ShellacShellac is a natural, organic resin that is secreted by the female lac beetle (Laccifera lacca) on trees found in India and Thailand. It is used in fruit and vegetable coatings, chewing gum and confectionary. Vegans generally avoid the product as there are still lice in the raw product. These are eliminated during purification.unknown-
E905ParaffinsParaffins encompasses a range of petroleum derived products including paraffin wax, mineral oil, petrolatum, petroleum jelly, and microcrystalline wax. It is used as protective coating on fresh fruit and vegetables to make them look shiny and appealing whilst also protecting them from spoilage. It is also used as a glazing agent to give chocolate and confectionary a nice glossy finish.unknown-
E905aMineral oilMineral oil otherwise known as liquid paraffin or Nujol is an odourless, tasteless clear mineral oil comprised of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. As a food additive is it used as a protective coating on fresh fruit and vegetables to protect them from spoilage, and on other products that require a shiny and appealing appearance. It is also used as a releasing agent applied to baking tins to ensure bakery items are released from the pans after cooking.unknown-
E905bPetrolatum, VaselinePetrolatum otherwise known as petroleum jelly or soft paraffin, is a colourless to yellowish-white, semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons. It is predominately used in personal care products, like vaseline and moisturisers. Used in personal care products, like vaseline and moisturisers. Not known as a food additive.unknown-
E905cPetroleum wax: Microcrystalline wax, Paraffin waxMicrocrystalline wax is a type of creamy white to dark brown wax produced by de-oiling of petrolatum as part of the petroleum refining process. In contrast to paraffin, microcrystalline wax is a lot finer and may vary in character depending on the crude oil used. See E907. In foods, waxed/surface treated fruit and vegetables, chewing gum, hard and soft confectionary, and rind of ripened cheese to name but a few.unknown-
E906Gum benzoicNatural resin polymer derived from the bark of trees from the genus Styrax from Southeast Asia. Used in bleaching agent for bread rolls, flour, cheese products, dried egg, tinned tomatoes, and mineral supplements. See also benzoic acid, E210.unknown-
E907Hydrogenated poly-1-deceneMicrocrystalline wax is a type of creamy white to dark brown wax produced by de-oiling of petrolatum as part of the petroleum refining process. In contrast to paraffin, microcrystalline wax is a lot finer and may vary in character depending on the crude oil used. See E905c.unknown-
E908Rice bran waxNatural polymer derived from rice bran. The FDA has approved fatty acid methyl esters as a direct food additive in glazing agents, flavourings and coatings.unknown-
E909Spermaceti waxSpermaceti is the wax present in the head cavity of the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus. Purified spermaceti forms a light mass of white crystals which can be powdered. It can be fused with bee wax and other fatty compounds (oils, fatty acids) and used as glazing agents. After the international regulation concerning whale captures, it is no longer produced and sold. It is now replaced by synthetic spermaceti made of pure cetyl palmitate or mixtures based on jojoba. Coating wax for citrus fruits.unknown-
E910Wax esters, L-cysteineA naturally occurring sulphur containing amino acid, derived from cystine, that the body needs to produce Glutathione, one of the body's major antioxidants. Natural sources of cysteine include egg yolks, meat, red pepper, garlic, onion, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, dairy products and some cereals. It is commercially produced from hair, both human and animal (duck feathers) and also synthetically. Regulations vary and depend on how the additive is being used and whether it's synthetic or animal derived. It is used as an improving agent and flour treatment agent in flour and bakery products.unknown-
E911Methyl esters of fatty acidsFatty acid methyl esters are aliphatic organic esters primarily prepared by the reaction of a carboxylic acid derived from natural fats and oils and methanol. The FDA has approved fatty acid methyl esters as a direct food additive in glazing agents, flavourings and coatings.unknown-
E912Montanic acid estersA hard wax obtained by solvent extraction of lignite (brown coal). Its colour ranges from dark brown to light yellow when crude, or white when refined. It consists of non-glyceride carboxylic acid esters, free acids and resins. It's predominately used as a stabiliser, as a flavour (citrus taste), and in chewing gum.unknown-
E913Lanolin, sheep wool greaseLanolin is a natural greasy yellow substance obtained from the fleece of sheep. Sebum (wool grease) is extracted from the wool, cleaned, refined, bleached, deodorised, and dried to produce anhydrous lanolin. Not used by vegans.unknown-
E914Oxidized polyethylene waxOxidized polyethylene wax is low molecular weight ethylene derived polymer that is used in food preparation as a protective and water-impermeable coating for citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, grapefruit etc.). Found in foods such as bakery products, dietary supplements, nutrients, stabiliser in cereals, desserts, flour, lard, and dry vinegars, and as an anti-caking agent in table salt.unknown-
E915Esters of colophonyA resin obtained from the pine tree Pinus silvestris and related species.unknown-
E916Calcium iodateCalcium iodate (also called lautarite) is a compound of calcium and iodate anion. It is used as a dough conditioner and an oxidizing agent.unknown-
E917Potassium iodate, Iodic acid, Potassium saltPotassium iodate (KIO3) is a chemical compound. It is sometimes used in radiation treatment, as it can replace radioactive iodine from the thyroid. It is highly oxidizing and is also used for the iodisation of table salt and as a flour treatment agent.unknown-
E918Nitrogen oxides, Laughing gas, Sweet airNitrous oxide and water are formed as a result of heating ammonium nitrate at very high temperatures. Used as a propellant in aerosol spray cans for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking sprays.unknown-
E919Nitrogen chlorideNitrogen trichloride is a chemical compound composed of one nitrogen molecule and three chloride molecules. It is a yellow, oily, pungent smelling liquid which is formed as a byproduct of the reaction between ammonia derivatives and chlorine. It is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour and as a maturing agent in flour.unknown-
E920L-Cysteine hydrochloridesA naturally occurring sulphur containing amino acid, derived from cystine, that the body needs to produce Glutathione, one of the body's major antioxidants. It can be obtained from animal sources, including pork.unknown-
E921L-cystineA naturally occurring sulphur containing amino acid, produced by the digestion of proteins. It is then broken down to L-cysteine from which glutathione can be synthesized, one of the body's major anti-oxidants. One of the richest sources of L-cystine is unpasteurised or low-heat pasteurised undenatured whey proteins from milk. It is used as an improving agent and flour treatment agent to enhance and stabilise bread and bakery products. It can be obtained from animal sources, including pork.unknown-
E922Potassium persulphatePotassium persulphate is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Used in beer making, soft drinks, carbonated beverages, sherbet lollies and confectionary, noodles, baked goods, and also used as an additive in baking.unknown-
E923Ammonium persulphateAmmonium persulphate is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Used in bakery goods, soft drinks, cocoa, confectionary, custard powder, mead and wine. unknown-
E924Potassium bromatePotassium bromate is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Potassium bromate has been found to be carcinogenic and is banned by most countries for use as a food additive.unknown-
E924bCalcium bromateCalcium bromate is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising.unknown-
E925ChlorineChlorine is naturally found in nature in the earth and in seas and is part of common salt (sodium chloride). Commercially it is produced in various ways, one being from sodium chloride solution (brine). Chlorine is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E926Chlorine dioxide, ChlorylChlorine dioxide is synthetically produced from sodium chlorite. It is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour. The flour is gassed in special ovens using chlorine dioxide which bleaches and matures the flour. Chlorine dioxide destroys vitamin E and can react with other proteins in the flour to cause adverse reactions. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : Up to 30 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E927aAzodicarbonamide, Azobisformamide, DiazenedicarboxamideObtained from carbonamide. Used to waxed and surface treat fruit and vegetables, chewing gum, hard and soft candies (to look shiny and appealing), chocolate, and the rind of ripened cheese to name but a few. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : Up to 45 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E927bCarbamide, UreaCarbamide is an organic compound commonly known as urea that is found in mammalian urine. Commercially it is synthesised from inorganic ammonia and carbon dioxide. It acts as a yeast nutrient for fermented products, and as a browning agent that induces browning for commercially baked goods. Used in beer, wine, and commercially made baked goods. unknown-
E928Benzoyl peroxideBenzoyl peroxide is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and milk that is used for the production of white Italian cheeses. It is also used as a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Used in flour products, and breads. It is also used to bleach milk that is used for the production of white Italian cheeses. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 40 mg/kg body weight.suspicious-
E929Acetone peroxideAcetone peroxide is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, a dough strengthener to allow higher rising, and a maturing agent. It is commercially produced from hydrogen peroxide and acetone. Used in flour products, and breads.suspicious-
E930Calcium peroxideCalcium peroxide is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, a dough strengthener to allow higher rising, and a maturing agent. In foods, waxed/surface treated fruit and vegetables, chewing gum, hard and soft confectionary, and rind of ripened cheese to name but a few.unknown-
E938ArgonArgon is a natural inert gas that is the most abundant in the atmosphere and most frequently used commercially. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, and non-toxic in both liquid and gas forms. It is predominately used as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation. Used in fresh vegetables and meat.unknown-
E939HeliumHelium is a natural inert gas that is the second most abundant in the universe after hydrogen. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, unreactive, and non-toxic in gas form. Commercially helium is extracted by fractional distillation from natural gas. It is predominately used as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation. Used in many gas packed products.unknown-
E940Dichlorodifluoromethane, Carbon dichloride difluoride, Freon 12, Propellant 12Dichlorodifluoromethane is an inert synthetic gas that is non-reactive, non-toxic and a gas at room temperature. It acts as an aerosol spray propellant, and liquid freezant (direct contact freezing agent for food) when compressed in an aerosol can. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 1,5 mg/kg body weight. It is banned in many countries due to concerns about being a major contributor to ozone depletion.avoid-
E941NitrogenNitrogen is an inert natural gas that is the most abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. It is odourless, colourless, and tasteless. It is used as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation. Due to it's low solubility in water, it helps prevent package collapse. It is also used as an aerosol spray propellant.safe-
E942Nitrous oxide, Laughing gas, Sweet airNitrous oxide and water are formed as a result of heating ammonium nitrate at very high temperatures. Nitrous oxide is an inert gas that is odourless and colourless, and is predominately used as a spray can propellant, in particular for whipping cream and cooking oil sprays. It doesn't change the chemical composition of the contents so it's the product of choice. Furthermore it is used as a packaging gas because it inhibits the growth of bacteria, acts as an anti-oxidant and doesn't cause food spoilage. See also E918.safe-
E943aButaneButane is an inert natural gas produced from petroleum. As a food additive, butane is used as a propellant in aerosol spray cans for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking sprays. Used as a propellant and aerating agent in foamed or sprayed food products.unknown-
E943bIso-Butane, MethylpropaneIsobutane is an inert natural gas and is an isomer of butane. As a food additive, isobutane is used as a propellant in aerosol spray cans for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking sprays. Used as a propellant and aerating agent in foamed or sprayed food products.unknown-
E944PropanePropane is an inert natural gas produced from petroleum. As a food additive, butane is used as a propellant in aerosol spray cans for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking sprays.unknown-
E945Chloropentafluoroethane, Freon 115Chloropentafluoroethane was once used as a refrigerant but banned in many countries due to concerns about being a major contributor to ozone depletion. Used as a propellant and aerating agent in foamed or sprayed food products. Used in cheese, jelly, and canned fruits and vegetables.unknown-
E946Octafluorocyclobutane, Freon-C-318, PerfluorocyclobutaneOctafluorocyclobutane is used as a refrigerant to replace ozone-deleting refrigerants. As a food additive Octafluorocyclobutane may be safely used as a propellant and aerating agent in foamed or sprayed food products, alone or in conjunction with carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide. Used in jelly, raw meat cuts, poultry, and artificially sweetened preserves.unknown-
E948OxygenOxygen is a natural gas that is the third most abundant in the universe after hydrogen and helium. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, highly reactive, and non-toxic in gas form. Commercially oxygen is extracted by various chemical methods. As a food additive it is predominately used as a packaging gas for fresh vegetables, and in meat by allowing the meat to bloom into a nice cherry red colour that's visually appealing and preservative free. The colour of the meat can be controlled by adjusting the amount of oxygen.safe-
E949HydrogenHydrogen is a natural gas that is the most abundant in the universe. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, and non-toxic. Commercially hydrogen is produced in many different ways but economically from hydrocarbons. It is predominately used as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation.safe-
E950Acesulfame potassiumAcesulfame potassium is a non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean, sweet taste with a slight bitter aftertaste. It is commercially made by the transformation of acetoacetic acid in combination with potassium (natural mineral) to form a white crystalline powder.unknown-
E951AspartameAspartame is essentially a non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 160-200 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean sweet taste with slower onset and a prolonged sweet aftertaste. Aspartame is the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. Lifelong consumption of aspartame probably increases the risk of cancer. Pregnant women should avoid it.danger-
E952Cyclamic acid and its sodium and calcium saltsCyclamate is the sodium and calcium salt of cyclamic acid used as a non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 30 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar). It is chemically prepared from cyclohexylsulfamic acid to form an odourless white crystalline powder that is soluble in water, and is stable under heat and cold conditions. It is synergistic in effect, often used with saccharin to enhance the sweetness, mask the bitter aftertaste, and increase the products stability and shelf life. Animal studies indicated that it causes cancer.avoid-
E953Isomalt, IsomaltitolIsomalt is a low-caloric sugar-free bulk sweetener derived from the sugar in beets and is a member of the polyols or sugar alcohols. It can replace sugar in a 1:1 ratio, has half the calories, and the same texture and appearance of table sugar. Isomalt is a mixture of the hydrogenated disaccharides gluco-sorbitol and gluco-mannitol. It is also used as a bulking agent, an anti-caking agent that prevents stickiness in baked goods and candies, and an anti-browning agents that prevents caramelisation and browning.unknown-
E954Saccharin and its sodium, potassium and calcium saltsSaccharin and its sodium, potassium, and calcium salts are used as non-caloric artificial sweeteners which are 200-700 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar) with a bitter and metallic after taste when used in high concentrations. Saccharin is chemically prepared by the oxidation of o-toluenesulfonamide to form insoluble odourless white crystals. Many studies on animals have shown that saccharin can cause cancer.danger-
E955Sucralose, Trichlorogalactosucrose, TGSSucralose is the only non-caloric artificial sweetener made from sugar. It is 400-800 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar) and tastes like sugar with a lingering sweet aftertaste. It is chemically produced by the selective chlorination of sucrose (sugar) in which three hydroxyl groups are replaced with chlorine.unknown-
E956AlitameAlitame is a high potency essentially non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 2000 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean, sweet taste with no aftertaste. It is a derivative of the dipeptide composed of the amino acids aspartic acid and alanine, to form a white crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water.unknown-
E957ThaumatinThaumatin is a natural mixture of intensely sweet proteins (thaumatins) isolated from the arils of the katemfe fruit (Thaumatococcus danielli) native to west Africa. It produces an odourless cream coloured powder that is highly water-soluble, stable to heat and acidic conditions. It is considered to be a high potency non-caloric sweetener as it doesn't contribute carbohydrates, and is 3000 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar).unknown-
E958GlycyrrhizinGlycyrrhizin is a triterpenoid saponin glycoside extracted from the liquorice root Glycyrrhiza glabra that produces an odourless white crystalline powder that is soluble in hot water, but insoluble in cold water. It is used as a natural non-caloric sweetener that is 50-100 times sweeter that sucrose (sugar).unknown-
E959Neohesperidine dihydrochalconeNeohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener derived from citrus oranges which is 1500-1800 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar). It is commercially produced by extracting neohesperidin from seville oranges and citrus and then hydrogenating this with alkali to make Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone. unknown-
E960Steviol glycosides, SteviosideStevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves of stevia rebaudiana bertoni plant to produce a white powder in pure form that is readily soluble in water and is heat and pH stable. Commercially it is available in powder or liquid form. It causes many controversial debates.avoid-
E961NeotameNeotame is a high potency non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 7000-13000 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean sweet taste. It is also used as a flavour enhancer especially in mint flavoured products, or to modify and mask the flavour of products containing soy or have been vitamin fortified. It is a derivative of the dipeptide composed of the amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine, to form a white to off-white powder.unknown-
E962Aspartame-acesulfame saltAspartame-acesulfame salt is a non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 350 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean sweet taste. Commercially it is made by combining and heating two parts of aspartame and 1 part of acesulfame potassium in an acidic solution, then allowing it to crystallise.avoid-
E965Maltitol, Maltitol syrupMaltitol is a low-caloric sugar-free bulk sweetener that is a member of the polyols or sugar alcohols. It has about 90% of the sweetness of sucrose (sugar) with a clean sweet taste that can also be used synergistically with other sweeteners. Maltitol is a disaccharide produced by the hydrogenation of maltose obtained from starch.unknown-
E966LactitolLactitol is a low-caloric sugar-free bulk sweetener that is a member of the polyols or sugar alcohols. It has about 40% of the sweetness of sucrose (sugar) with a clean sweet taste with no aftertaste, that can also be used synergistically with other sweeteners like acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose. Lactitol is a disaccharide produced by the hydrogenation of lactose derived from whey (milk). It may cause bloating and flatulence. In intolerant persons it can act as a laxative.suspicious-
E967Xylitol, XyliteXylitol is a natural sugar alcohol (polyols) sweetener found in many fibrous fruits and vegetables such as berries, corn, mushrooms, and plums. Commercially it is produced from birch, other hard wood trees, and fibrous vegetables. It has about the same sweetness as sucrose (sugar) with a clean, sweet taste with no aftertaste, and imparts a cooling sensation. It may cause bloating and flatulence. In intolerant persons it can act as a laxative.suspicious-
E968ErythritolErythritol is a non-caloric sugar-free bulk sweetener that is a member of the polyols or sugar alcohols. It has about 60-70% of the sweetness of sucrose (sugar) with a clean sweet taste with a cooling sensation, but with no aftertaste. It occurs naturally in fruits (such as grapes and melons) and fermented foods, but commercially is prepared by the fermentation of glucose by the yeast Moniliella polinis.unknown-
E999Quillaia extractQuillaia extract consists mainly of saponins which are extracted from the bark of the Quillaia Saponaria Molina or Quillay Bark trees that are native to Peru and Chile. The colour and taste of the extract is depended on the level of purity. Quillaia extract is mainly used as a foaming agent in beverages (see list below) and also as a humectant in baked goods, frozen dairy products, and puddings.unknown-


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