Food additives – Colours

Colours codes 100–199; Subranges: 100–109 yellows, 110–119 oranges, 120–129 reds, 130–139 blues & violets, 140–149 greens, 150–159 browns & blacks, 160–199 gold and others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as colours:

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E100Curcumin, TurmericNatural colour isolated from the roots and stem of Yellowroot (Curcuma longa and Curcuma domestica). Turmeric is the crude extract, whereas curcumin is the purified compound. It imparts the yellow colour to curry powder. Largely used in India and other Asian countries in traditional medicine and has many benefits. Daily intake: Up to 1 mg/kg body weight for curcumin, and 0.3 mg/kg for turmeric. It is safe for consumption but caution with large quantities, some people can experience nausea or diarrhea. Turmeric can make gallbladder problems worse. Don't use turmeric if you have gallstones or a bile duct obstruction or if you are pregnant because it is an uterine stimulant.suspicious-
E101Riboflavin, Vitamin B2, LactoflavinRiboflavin in found naturally in some foods, but commercially it is manufactured synthetically and can also be prepared from yeasts including Candida flaveri and Candida famata. It is used to impart a yellow to orange colour in foods, as well as a being a vitamin supplement, and food fortifier. Daily intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. safe-
E101aRiboflavin-5'-PhosphateIs a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (E 101) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase. It may be used in preference to Riboflavin due to better solubility, however it is more expensive. Daily intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E102Tartrazine, FDC Yellow 5Tartrazine is a synthetically produced yellow azo dye (a synthetic colour that contain an azo group. Daily intake: Up to 7.5 mg/kg body weight. No side effects are known for pure tartrazine, except in people who are intolerant to salicylates (aspirin, berries, fruits); in that case tartrazine also induces intolerance symptoms. In combination with benzoates (E210-215), tartrazine is implicated in a large percentage of cases of ADHD syndrome (hyperactivity) in children. Asthmatics may also experience symptoms following consumption of tartrazine, as it is a known histamine-liberating agent. It is link to DNA damage and tumors of the thyroid.danger-
E103Alkannin, Chrysoine ResorcinolDue to its toxic effects banned in 1980s in Europe. Alkannin is a natural dye that is obtained from the extracts of plants from the borage family Alkanna tinctoria that are found in the south of France. Alkannin is an antioxidant and has an antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. It is also known to have wound healing, antitumor, and antithrombotic properties.danger-
E104Quinoline Yellow WSYellow food azo dye. Daily intake: Up to 10 mg/kg body weight. Can causes allergic reaction (may act as a histamine liberator) and dermatitis. It can also causes hyperactivity in children.avoid-
E105Fast Yellow ABAn azo dye yielding a yellow colour, formerly used for food colouring. It is used as a food coloring, in printing inks, as a biological stain, a dental plaque disclosing agent and a radiopaque medium. It is now delisted in both Europe and USA and is forbidden if used in foods and drinks, as toxicological data has shown it is harmful. E105 has been implicated in non-atopic asthma.danger-
E106Riboflavin-5'-Sodium PhosphateA very closely related food dye with E101a and it is its sodium salt. It is rapidly turned to free riboflavin after ingestion. It is found in many foods for babies and young children as well as jams, milk products, and sweets and sugar products.unknown-
E107Yellow 2GYellow 2G is a yellow azo dye and a synthetic coal tar. Since it is an azo dye, E107 is implicated in allergies, hyperactivity and asthma. Use is limited and the colour may be banned in the near future. It is not listed by the UK's Food Standards Agency among EU approved food additives. Its use is banned in Austria, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States.avoid-
E110Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S, Yellow 6Sunset Yellow is a synthetic coal tar and azo yellow dye which is useful in fermented foods which must be heat treated. It is used to induce a colour change in some products. Banned in Norway. Daily intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates (aspirin). Additionally, it is a histamine liberator and has various side effects: gastric upset, urticaria or nettle rash, diarrhea, vomiting, numbness, swollen skin, sore and watery eyes, asthma and cough, dramatic change in behavior and mood swings, headache, sinus attacks, constipation, blood pressure disorders, sleeping disorders, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.danger-
E111Orange GGNOrange GGN is an orange food dye that is derived from the disodium salt. As a blue color, Brilliant Blue FCF is often found in ice cream, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, ice pops, blue raspberry flavored products, dairy products, sweets and drinks. In Europe it has been forbidden for use in foods since 1 January 1978 (EU directive 76/399/EEC). It has never been included in the food additives list of the codex allimentarius. As such it is presently forbidden for food use in general, because toxicological data has shown it is harmful.danger-
E120Cochineal Extract, Carminic Acid, Carmine, Natural Red 4Cochineal is a natural red colour which is derived from the insect Dayctylopius coccus, which feeds off various cacti plants. The body and eggs are used to extract the Carminic acid to produce the carminic dye. It is very soluble, oxidation resistant, light, and heat stable. Used in cheese, parsley sauce, ice-cream, soups, chewing gum, green vegetables and fruits preserved in liquids. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. Cochineal it is neither toxic nor known to be carcinogenic. However, the dye can induce an anaphylactic-shock reaction in a small number of people who are allergic to carmine. It can also (rarely) cause a skin irritation while using cosmetic products containing it.avoid-
E121Citrus Red 2Citrus Red 2 is a synthetic food dye which is extracted from several species of lichen, also known as orchella weeds. Citrus Red 2 yields an orange to yellow colour, and can also be a dark red powder. Used in gravy granules, mint sauce, ice-cream, desserts, tinned peas, and sweets. Approved in the United States only for use in colouring the skin of oranges. It is listed as an IARC Group 2B carcinogen, meaning that it is possibly carcinogenic to humans.danger-
E122Carmoisine, Azorubine, Food Red 3Carmoisine is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red to maroon powder and usually comes as a disodium salt. Caramel color is one of the oldest and most widely-used food colorings, and is found in almost every kind of industrially produced food, including: batters, beer, brown bread, buns, chocolate, cookies, cough drops, dark liquor such as brandy, rum, and whisky, chocolate-flavored flour-based confectionery, coatings, custards, decorations, fillings and toppings, potato chips, dessert mixes, doughnuts, fish and shellfish spreads, frozen desserts, fruit preserves, glucose tablets, gravy browning, ice cream, pickles, sauces and dressings, soft drinks (especially colas), sweets, vinegar, and wines. Daily intake: Up to 4 mg/kg body weight. Currently banned in Canada, Japan, Norway, USA . It appears to cause allergic or intolerance reactions, particularly amongst those with an aspirin intolerance. Other reactions can include a rash similar to nettle rash and skin swelling. Asthmatics sometimes react badly to it, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.danger-
E123Amaranth, FDC Red 2Amaranth is a dark red to purple azo dye and usually comes as a trisodium salt. It is derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name. Daily intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Since 1976 it has been banned in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it is a suspected carcinogen. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.danger-
E124Ponceau 4R, Cochineal Red A, Brilliant Scarlet 4RPonceau 4R is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red colour. Used in Beer, synthetic soy sauce, and confectionery Caramel color or caramel coloring is a soluble food coloring. Daily intake: Up to 4 mg/kg body weight. Ponceau 4R is considered carcinogenic in some countries, including US, Norway, and Finland and it is currently listed as a banned substance by the U.S.FDA. It may elicit intolerance in people allergic to salicylates (aspirin). Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.danger-
E125Ponceau SX, Scarlet GNPonceau SX is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red colour and usually comes as a disodium salt. Used in Acidic environments such as soft drinks; Caramel color or caramel coloring is a soluble food coloring. It is permitted in fruit peels and maraschino cherries. Ponceau SX may cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. In EU banned in year 1978.avoid-
E126Ponceau 6RPonceau 6R is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red colour and usually comes as a disodium salt. It is soluble in water and only slightly soluble in ethanol. It is used as a food dye and a histological stain on slides. In EU banned in year 1978.avoid-
E127Erythrosine, FDC Red 3Erythrosine is a cherry-pink to red synthetic coal tar dye. Daily intake: Up to 0.1 mg/kg body weight. Some research says that high doses have been found to cause cancer in rats. Inhibits the action of pepsin and altered thyroid function. Increased hyperactivity has been reported in a few cases, as well as a possible connection with mutagenicity. Erythrosine causes an increased photosensitivity in people with sensitivity to sunlight.avoid-
E128Red 2GRed 2G is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red colour. It is also banned in EU, Australia, Austria, Canada, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Israel, and Malaysia. Recent animal studies in EU show that aniline should be considered as a carcinogen and genotoxic. Children's Support Group recommends be eliminated from the diet of children.danger-
E129Allura Red AC, FDC Red 40Allura Red AC is an azo dye that yields a red colour and usually comes in a powder as a sodium salt. It was introduced as a replacement for Amaranth as a food colouring. Daily intake: Up to 7 mg/kg body weight. Banned in Switzerland. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children. One of its degradation products causes bladder cancer in animals when present in high concentrations. danger-
E130Indanthrene blue RS, Anthraquinone blueIndanthrone blue is an organic dye. In EU banned in year 1978.danger-
E131Patent Blue VPatent Blue V is a synthetic coal tar dye which yields a bluish-violet colour. It is a sodium or calcium salt and has the appearance of a violet powder. It is used mainly in chocolate cakes, but also in milk and cheeses, yoghurts, jams, fruit products, fish, and other products. Daily intake: Up to 15 mg/kg body weight. It may cause allergic reactions, with symptoms ranging from itching and nettle rash to nausea, hypotension, and in rare cases anaphylactic shock; it is not recommended for childrendanger-
E132Indigo carmine, Indigotine, FDC Blue 2Indigo dye is a synthetic coal tar dye with a distinctive blue colour. Formally the dye was extracted from Phoenician sea snails and several species of plants. Almost all Indigo dye today is produced synthetically. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. Rare allergic reactions have been described, due to coupling of the colour to (body) proteins. It can also function as a histamine liberator.avoid-
E133Brilliant Blue FCF, FDC Blue 1Brilliant blue FCF is a synthetic dye derived from coal tar and is usually a disodium salt. Some allergic reactions have been reported. It is not recommended for children, it can cause hyperactivity.avoid-
E140Chlorophylls, ChlorophyllinsChlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. A fairly unstable dye, which tends to fade easily (see E141). Not easy to obtain in a pure form and commercially available chloroyphyll usually contains other plant material impurities. The usual sources are nettles, spinach and grass with the chloroyphyll being extracted using acetone, ethanol, light petroleum, methylethylketone and diachloromethane. Lutein, E161b, may be extracted at the same time. No side effects are known.safe-
E141Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllinsThey are derived from Chlorophyll (E140), by substitution of copper for the magnesium, which increases their stability. Daily intake: Up to 15 mg/kg body weight. No adverse effects are known. Copper is released when E141 is heated; however, copper concentrations from this compound will not reach toxic levelssafe-
E142Green SGreen S is a synthetic coal tar triarylmethane dye which yields a green colour. It is a vital dye, meaning it can be used to stain living cells. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. It is prohibited as a food additive in Canada, United States, Japan, and Norway. Green S may cause allergic reactions and is one of the colourants recommended to be eliminated from the diet of children because it can cause hyperactivity.avoid-
E143Fast Green FCF, FDC Green 3It is a sea green triarylmethane food dye. This substance has been found to have tumorigenic effects in experimental animals, as well as mutagenic effects in both experimental animals and humans. Its use as a food dye is prohibited in European Union and some other countries.danger-
E150aPlain caramelPlain caramel, caustic caramel, spirit caramel. Used in whiskey among many.The caramel group of colours are the oldest and the most widely used group of colours. Caramel colouring may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as lactose, dextrose, starch hydrolysates, or malt syrup. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic caramel colouring.safe-
E150bCaustic sulphite caramelUsed in Cognac. The caramel group of colours are the oldest and the most widely used group of colours. Caramel colouring may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as lactose, dextrose, starch hydrolysates, or malt syrup. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic caramel colouring.safe-
E150cAmmonia caramelAmmonia caramel, baker's caramel, confectioner's caramel, beer caramel. Used in beer, sauces, and confectionary. The caramel group of colours are the oldest and the most widely used group of colours. Daily intake: Up to 200 mg/kg body weight. Caramel colouring may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as lactose, dextrose, starch hydrolysates, or malt syrup. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic caramel colouring. Intestinal problems may occur after ingestion of large amounts.suspicious-
E150dSulphite ammonia caramelSulfite ammonia caramel, acid-proof caramel, soft-drink caramel. Used in soft drinks. The caramel group of colours are the oldest and the most widely used group of colours. Daily intake: Up to 200 mg/kg body weight. Caramel colouring may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as lactose, dextrose, starch hydrolysates, or malt syrup. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic caramel colouring. Intestinal problems may occur after ingestion of large amounts.suspicious-
E151Black PN, Brilliant Black BNBrilliant Black BN is a synthetic coal tar and azo dye which yields a violet-black colour and usually comes as a tetrasodium salt. Daily intake: Up to 1-5 mg/kg body weight. It has been banned in the United States, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, Austria, Switzerland, Japan, Finland and Norway. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children. In the intestines, it can be transformed by bacteria into possibly hazardous compounds, hence the rather low ADI and restricted use.avoid-
E152Black 7984, Food Black 2It is a brown-to-black synthetic diazo dye. It is often used as the tetrasodium salt. Its use in food is discontinued in USA and EU since 1984. It is also not permitted in Australia and Japan. Black 7984 is also used in cosmetics. Black 7984 may cause allergic or intolerance reactions, particularly amongst those with an aspirin intolerance.[citation needed] It is a histamine liberator, and may worsen the symptoms of asthma. May cause hyperativity in children.avoid-
E153Carbon black, Vegetable carbonCarbon black is a natural food colour normally derived from burnt vegetable matter. Used medically as an anti-diarrhoeal agent. It is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).avoid-
E154Brown FK, Kipper brownBrown FK is a combination of six different synthetic azo dyes with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate, and yields a brown to black colour. It is banned in the European Union (but was allowed to colour kippers to produce orange kippers). It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children. Some of the compounds in the mixture may be mutagenic; hence the use is restricted to a few products.danger-
E155Brown HT, Chocolate brown HTBrown HT is a synthetic azo dye which yields a brown colour. It is banned in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, United States, Norway, Switzerland, and Sweden. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.avoid-
E160aAlpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Gamma-caroteneNatural colour isolated from several plants; however, it is obtained commercially from carrots. Carotenes occur as isomers, consisting of a series of chemically identical, but sterically different components. The actual composition differs between the plant species. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations will result in yellow discoloration of the skin. As carotene is a source of vitamin A (2 parts of carotene equal 1 part of vitamin A), high concentrations will cause symptoms of vitamin A toxicity. safe-
E160bAnnatto, Bixin, NorbixinNatural colour isolated from the seeds of the annatto tree (Bixa orellana ). Annatto is the name of the crude extract, whereas bixin is the fat-soluble colour and norbixin the water-soluble colour. Daily intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight for annatto, and 0.065 mg/kg body weight for bixin. Annatto can cause allergies and eczema. It is not always known which component in the mixture is the causative agent of the side effects.avoid-
E160cPaprika oleoresin, Capsanthin, Capsorubin, Paprika extract, Capsicum (bell pepper) extractNatural colour isolated from the bell pepper, Capsicum annuum. This mixture mainly contains capsacain and capsorubin. None known side effects.safe-
E160dLycopeneNatural colour, present in many yellow and red plants and fruits. Commercially isolated from tomatoes. There are also cases of intolerance or allergic reaction to dietary lycopene, which may cause diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain or cramps, gas, vomiting, and loss of appetite.safe-
E160eBeta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30)Natural colour, present in many plants. Betanin, or Beetroot Red, is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. No side effects known in the concentrations used in foods. High concentrations will result in yellow discolouration of the skin. As E160e is a source of vitamin A, high concentrations will cause symptoms of vitamin A toxicity. Possible carcinogen.safe-
E160fEthyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid (C 30)Natural colour, present in many plants. It is made commercially from E160e or isolated from plants. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. suspicious-
E161aFlavoxanthinFlavoxanthin is a natural colour present is many plants. It is commercially prepared from Ranunculus sp. (Buttercup), and it yields a yellow colour. It is very rarely used. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. safe-
E161bLuteinLutein is a natural colour found in many green leafy vegetables, marigolds and egg yolks. It is prepared commercially from grass or nettles, and yields a yellow colour or Tagetes species. None known side effects.safe-
E161cCryptoxanthinCryptoxanthin is natural colour found in many plants including orange rind, papaya, egg yolk, and is commercially prepared from the Physalis species. None known side effects. It has some vitamin A activity.unknown-
E161dRubixanthin, Natural yellow 27Rubixanthin is a natural xanthophyll pigment found in rose hips. It is commerically prepared form Rosa (Rose) species and yields a red-orange colour. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg bodyweight. None known side effects.unknown-
E161eViolaxanthin, Zeaxanthin diepoxideViolaxanthin is a natural xanthophyll pigment found in a variety of plants including pansies. It is commercially prepared from the Viola species and yields an orange colour. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg bodyweight. None known side effects.unknown-
E161fRhodoxanthinRhodoxanthin is a xanthophyll pigment that is found in small quantities in a variety plants including Taxus baccata. It is commercially prepared from a number of different plant species and yields a purple colour. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg bodyweight. None known side effects.unknown-
E161gCanthaxanthinCanthaxanthin is a natural colour prepared from mushrooms, crustaceans, and fish, although commercially it is produced synthetically from carotene. Daily intake: Up to 0.03 mg/kg bodyweight. No side effects known for the use in foods. Eye problems are common side effects when used in tanning pills.suspicious-
E161hZeaxanthinZeaxanthin is a natural colour present in many plants, although it is commercially prepared from several dried plant species and yields a yellow colour. Daily intake: Up to 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight. None known side effects.unknown-
E161iCitranaxanthinCitranaxanthin is a natural colour present in many plants. Commercially it is prepared from several dried plant species, and yields a yellow colour. None known side effects.unknown-
E161jAstaxanthinAstaxanthin is a natural colour found in yeast, crayfish, crustaceans, trout, microalgae, and bird feathers, although commercially it is prepared from both natural and synthetic sources. It provides the red colour of salmon meat and the red colour of cooked shellfish. The commercial production of astaxanthin comes from both natural and synthetic sources. As a food colouring in the United States and EU it is restricted to use in animal food. But there are many dietary supplement with astaxanthin describing it as a very powerful antioxidant, 'king of caroteonids' and describing many positive effects on human health.unknown-
E162Beetroot Red, BetaninBeetroot Red is a natural colour that is extracted from beetroot pulp and juice and yields a red colour. It is a light-sensitive colour therefore it is mainly used in frozen food due to its short shelf-life. Used in jelly, raw meat cuts, poultry, and artificially sweetened preserves. No side effects known. It is excreted unaltered in the urine. safe-
E163Anthocyanins (Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin, Grape peel extract, Anthocyan Mixture, Black currant extract)Anthocyanins are a large group of natural colours derived from many fruits, berries and flowers, although commercially they are extracted from red cabbage or grape skins. Temperature, light and pH can influence the colour. Daily intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight for anthocyan mixture. No side effects known. It can be consumed by vegans and vegetarians and all religious groups except Jews, as these products my be derived from grapes. safe-
E170Calcium carbonate, Calcium hydrogen carbonateCalcium carbonate is a naturally occuring mineral, in which the most common form is limestone. It can also be found in marble and corals, and yields a white colour. It is also used as an anti-caking agent in foods, and as a mineral supplement. Harmless in moderate doses.unknown-
E171Titanium dioxideTitanium dioxide is a naturally occurring mineral extracted from Ilmenite and yields a white colour. Is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food colouring. Caution when titanium dioxide is in nanoparticles like in some sunscreens.unknown-
E172Iron oxides and iron hydroxides: Black iron oxide, Red iron oxide, Yellow iron oxideIron oxides are natural minerals that are commercially prepared from iron powder which yield yellow, red, orange, brown or black pigment colours. Only used for surface coating. The iron is not absorbed in the body. Daily Intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight .unknown-
E173AluminiumAluminum is a naturally occurring metal that is silvery-white in colour. It is smelted from the ore Bauxite. As a food additive it is used solely for external decoration where it can be found in the covering of dragées and the decoration of sugar-coated flour confectionery, in cake decorations and to give a silvery finish to pills and tablets. There is an increasing body of evidence to suggest that an accumulation of aluminium in the cells of the nervous system could be potentially toxic. It is found in abnormally high levels in the brain cells of Alzheimer's disease sufferers. May induce or intensify skeletal abnormalities such as osteoporosis.avoid-
E174SilverSilver is a naturally occurring mineral that is obtained by crushing silver bearing ore. Only used for surface coating. Long, regular consumption can lead to kidney damage and a blue-grey discolouration of the eyes, nose and nasal septum, throat and skin.avoid-
E175GoldGold is a naturally occurring yellow precious metal that is obtained by crushing gold-containing rocks. It is primarily used on food to give a metallic surface colour. Used in dairy-based products, fat spreads, processed fruits, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pastas, bakery products, snack foods, chocolate, mustards, soybean-based products, mayonnaise, vinegars, and many more. Chemically, gold is very inactive and therefore virtually harmless, however as there is no dietary requirement it is probably best avoided.unknown-
E180Litholrubine BK, Pigment RubineLithol Rubine BK is a synthetic azo dye which yields a reddish colour and has the appearance of a red powder. Used in many products including custard mixes, yoghurt, jelly, flavoured milk, artificial sweetener base, canned icing, cheese, as well as being used in slimming aids and indigestion tablets. Only used for surface coating of cheese (normally not ingested). People who suffer from asthma, rhinitis or the skin disease urticaria may find their symptoms become worse following consumption of azo dyes. Banned in some countries.avoid-
E181TanninTannin is a natural colour that is derived from the twigs and nutgalls of oak trees. Commercially it is usually synthetically prepared from acorns. It yields a yellow to white colour. They have many beneficial effects but caution with high concentration. Tannins should be avoided by those suffering from aneamia, as they hinder the absorption of Iron. With the exception of tea, long-term and/or excessive use of herbs containing high concentrations of tannins is not recommended. Tannins are not found on list of EU approved additives but this does not mean they are not allowed in general - simply they are not classifed as food additives but as food ingridients. High concentrations may cause stomach problems or cause constriction of arteries. unknown-
E182Orcein, Orchil, Citrus Red2, Lacmus, ArchilDyes extracted from several species of lichen. Orcein is a reddish-brown dye, orchil is a purple-blue dye.unknown-


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