Food additives – Antioxidants, Acidity regulators

Antioxidants & acidity regulators codes: 300–399; Subranges: 300–305 ascorbates (vitamin C), 306–309 Tocopherol (vitamin E), 310–319 gallates & erythorbates, 320–329 lactates, 330–339 citrates & tartrates, 340–349 phosphates, 350–359 malates & adipates, 360–369 succinates & fumarates, 370–399 others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as antioxidants, acidity regulators:

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E300Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)Ascorbic acid is a sugar with anti-oxidant properties that occurs naturally in most fruits and vegetables, and is commonly known as vitamin C. Commercially it is synthesised by the bacterial fermentation of glucose, then followed by chemical oxidation. It is used as an anti-oxidant, preservative, and a source of vitamin C in foods.safe-
E301Sodium ascorbateSodium ascorbate is the sodium salt of ascorbic acid. Used in many products including pork pies, tinned meats, cereal based baby foods, dairy based drinks, fat spreads, processed fruit, food supplements, beer and malt beverages, mead, and dietetic formulas.safe-
E302Calcium ascorbateCalcium ascorbate is the calcium salt of ascorbic acid. Used in dairy based drinks, condensed milk, processed cheese, dairy bases desserts, fat spreads, canned or bottles vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pasta, batters, egg-based desserts, vinegars, and mustards.safe-
E303Potassium ascorbatePotassium ascorbate is the potassium salt of ascorbic acid. Used in many foods including dairy based drinks, condensed milk, processed cheese, dairy bases desserts, fat spreads, canned or bottles vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pasta, batters, egg-based desserts, vinegars, and mustards.unknown-
E304Ascorbyl palmitateAscorbyl palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid. There is the possibility that the palmitic acid used is obtained from animal fat. Daily intake: Up to 1.25 mg/kg body weight .suspicious-
E305Ascorbyl stearateAscorbyl stearate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and stearic acid.unknown-
E306TocopherolsTocopherol concentrate is a natural anti-oxidant extracted from soya bean oil, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize and green leaves. Commercially it is extracted by distillation in a vacuum from the same plants, and therefore may or may not be genetically modified. It is a fat-soluble anti-oxidant, also known as Vitamin E, and is used to prevent fats and oils from going rancid. Used in animal and vegetable oils, cheese and soups, milkshakes and baby formulas. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Vitamin E can cause several side effects in high concentrations. These are not associated with the use of tocopherols as additives, but as vitamin supplement. safe-
E307Alpha-tocopherolAlpha-tocopherol is an antioxidant commonly known as Vitamin E, and is synthetically produced commercially by chemical synthesis. It is a fat-soluble anti-oxidant, and is used to prevent animal oils from going rancid. See also 306/E306. Used in animal and vegetable oils, cheese and soups, vitamin supplement, and in vitamin E enriched foods. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Vitamin E can cause several side effects in high concentrations. These are not associated with the use of tocopherols as additives, but as vitamin supplement. safe-
E308Gamma-tocopherolGamma-tocopherol commonly known as Vitamin E is found naturally in walnuts, sesame seeds, corn, and many other plant seeds. For commercial purposes it is synthetically produced by chemical synthesis, and is a fat-soluble anti-oxidant used to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. See also 306/E306. Used in animal and vegetable oils, cheese and soups, salad dressings, and synthetically vitamin E enriched foods. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Vitamin E can cause several side effects in high concentrations. These are not associated with the use of tocopherols as additives, but as vitamin supplement. safe-
E309Delta-tocopherolDelta-tocopherol commonly known as vitamin E is found naturally in walnuts, sesame seeds, corn, and many other plant seeds. For commercial purposes it is synthetically produced by chemical synthesis, and is a fat-soluble, anti-oxidant used to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. It is also used to enrich foods with a synthetic source of Vitamin E. See also 306/E306. Used in animal and vegetable oils, cheese and soups, salad dressings, and synthetically vitamin E enriched foods. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Vitamin E can cause several side effects in high concentrations. These are not associated with the use of tocopherols as additives, but as vitamin supplement. safe-
E310Propyl gallateAntioxidPropyl gallate is a synthetic anti-oxidant that is produced as an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and propanol. The result is a white to light brown-yellow crystalline powder which is odourless and has a slightly bitter taste. When dissolved it is used as an anti-oxidant and added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Used in oils, margarines, lard, snack foods, and salad dressing. Daily Intake: Up to 1.4 mg/kg body weight. It may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.avoid-
E311Octyl gallateOctyl gallate is a synthetic anti-oxidant that is produced as an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and octanol. The result is a white to light brown-yellow crystalline powder that is odourless, and has a slightly bitter taste. When dissolved it is used as an anti-oxidant, and added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Used in oils, margarines, lard, snack foods, and salad dressing. Daily Intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. It may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.avoid-
E312Dodecyl gallateDodecyl gallate,is a synthetic antioxidant that is produced as an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and dodecanol. The result is a white to light brown-yellow crystalline powder that is odourless, with a slightly bitter taste. When dissolved it is used as an anti-oxidant, and added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Used in oils, margarines, lard, snack foods, and salad dressings. Daily Intake: Up to 0.05 mg/kg body weight. There is the possibility that the lauryl alcohol used is obtained from animal fat. It may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.avoid-
E313Ethyl gallateEthyl gallate is a synthetic anti-oxidant that is produced as an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and ethanol. The result is a white to light brown-yellow crystalline powder that is odourless, with a slightly bitter taste. When dissolved it is used as an antioxidant, and added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Used in oils, margarines, lard, and salad dressings. Daily Intake: Up to 3 mg/kg body weight. suspicious-
E314Guaiac resinGuaiac resin is a natural product that is extracted from the Guajacum officinale tree, and some other related tropical trees. The most common method of extraction is to boil the wood (chips or sawdust) in a solution of common salt, skimming off the substance which rises to the surface, then pulverizing it into a powder. The powder is light-grey in colour, but in the presence of light turns green. Guaiac resin is then dissolved into different solutions and added to food as an anti-oxidant. Used in cola, chewing gum, and sauces. Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. suspicious-
E315Erythorbic acidErythorbin acid is a synthetic isomer of ascorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. It is produced from sucrose, mainly derived from vegetable origins. Erythorbin acid produces a white to yellow crystalline solid which is very soluble in water, and is used as an anti-oxidant in foods. Used in dairy-based drinks, processed cheese, fat spreads, processed fruit, canned vegetables, breakfast cereals, sweeteners, vinegars, and mustards. None known in the concentrations used.safe-
E316Sodium erythorbateSodium erythorbate is the sodium salt of erythorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. It is produced from sugars derived from vegetable sources such as beets, and sugar cane. It produces a white, almost odourless crystalline powder that is freely soluble in water. Sodium erythorbate is used as an anti-oxidant in food to improve flavour stability, and the pink colouring of meat. Used mainly in meat products. None known in the concentrations used.safe-
E317Erythorbin acidErythorbin acid is a synthetic isomer of ascorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. It is produced from sucrose, mainly derived from vegetable origins. Erythorbin acid produces a white to yellow crystalline solid which is very soluble in water, and is used as an anti-oxidant in foods. Used in dairy-based drinks, processed cheese, fat spreads, processed fruit, canned vegetables, breakfast cereals, sweeteners, vinegars, and mustards. None known in the concentrations used.suspicious-
E318Sodium erythorbinSodium erythorbin is the sodium salt of erythorbic acid, commonly known as Vitamin C. It is prepared from sugars derived from vegetable sources such as beets and sugar cane, to produces a white, almost odourless crystalline powder, that is freely soluble in water. Sodium erythorbin is used in food as an anti-oxidant for it ability to improve flavour stability, and the pink colouring of meat. Used mainly in meat products. None known in the concentrations used.unknown-
E319Tert-Butylhydroquinone, TBHQTBHQ is a synthetically made aromatic organic compound that is derived when hydroquinone is substituted with a tert-butyl group. It produces a white, crystalline solid with a very characteristic odour, that is soluble in ethanol. TBHQ is highly effective as a preservative for vegetable and animal fats, as it doesn’t not change the colour or flavour of the product it is added to. Used in bakery goods, salad dressings, mustards, processed meat, soups, and vegetable oils and fats. Daily Intake: Up to 0.02 mg/kg body weight. May cause nausea, vomiting and delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal.suspicious-
E320Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHABHA is a synthetically made aromatic organic compound that is derived from the reaction of 4-methoxyphenol and isobutylene. It produces a white, crystalline solid with a very characteristic odour, that is soluble in ethanol. It is highly effective as an anti-oxidant and preservative as it stabilises free radicals to prevent further oxidation. It is also a synthetic analogue of vitamin E. Used in biscuits, cakes, fats and oils, cereals, pastry and pastry products, nuts, potato snack foods, sweets, and chewing gum. Generally used to keep fats and oil from becoming rancid, as well as preserve food odour, colour, and flavour. Daily Intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. May provoke an allergic reaction in some people and may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerance reactions. There are serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects and in large doses caused tumors in laboratory animals.avoid-
E321Butylated hydroxytoluene, BHTBHT is a synthetically made aromatic organic compound that is derived from the reaction of 4-methoxyphenol and isobutylene, catalysed by sulphuric acid. It produces a white, crystalline solid with a very characteristic odour, that is soluble in ethanol. It is highly effective as an anti-oxidant, and preservative as it stabilises free radicals to prevent further oxidation. It is also a synthetic analogue of vitamin E. Used in biscuits, cakes, fats and oils, cereals, pastry and pastry products. Daily Intake: Up to 0.3 mg/kg body weight. May provoke an allergic reaction in some people and may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerance reactions. avoid-
E322LecithinLecithin is any of a group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, and in egg yolk composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Commercially it is prepared by de-gumming the extracted oil of seeds (especially soybean), but there has been a move towards using the oil from sunflower seeds. It is a normal component of body cells and will be degraded and used by the body without side effects.safe-
E323AnoxomerAnoxomer is a synthetic, non-digestible, non-absorbable polymeric anti-oxidant developed for use in vegetable oils and animal fats. It is prepared by the condensation polymerisation of divinylbenzene, and a mixture of anti-oxidant monomers. Used in edible vegetable oils and animal fats in food processing, fish oils, chewing gum base, baked products (cookies), potato chips, and processed meats (ground turkey).unknown-
E324EthoxyquinEthoxyquin is a quinolin-based heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It is a colourless, hygroscopic liquid with a strong odour, used as an anti-oxidant to prevent fats from going rancid. Used mainly in pet foods. There has been some speculation that ethoxyquin in pet foods might be responsible for multiple health problems.unknown-
E325Sodium lactateSodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and molasses. Sodium lactate acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent, which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi, and yeast. It is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance. It should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate.suspicious-
E326Potassium lactatePotassium lactate is the potassium salt of lactic acid, a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and molasses. Potassium lactate acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent, which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi and yeast. It is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance. It should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate.suspicious-
E327Calcium lactateCalcium lactate is the calcium salt of lactic acid, which is a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the action of lactic acid on calcium carbonate, to produce a white crystalline salt (a baking powder) that is soluble in water. Calcium lactate acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi, and yeast. It is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance. It should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate.suspicious-
E328Ammonium lactateAmmonium lactate is the ammonium salt of lactic acid, which is a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and molasses. Ammonium lactate acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi, and yeast.unknown-
E329Magnesium lactateMagnesium lactate is the magnesium salt of lactic acid, which is a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates, and molasses. It acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi and yeast. Magnesium lactate is also a mineral supplement.unknown-
E330Citric acidCitric acid is a natural weak organic acid found in many fruits, especially citrus fruits. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Citric acid does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits. Pseudo-allergic reactions (intolerance) have been reported, but these are very rare.safe-
E331Sodium citrates: Monosodium citrate, Disodium citrate, Sodium citrate (trisodium citrate)Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Monosodium citrate is a strong sequestrant and is used to prevent clumping in blood samples. Disodium citrate is used as an anti-oxidant, acidity regulator, and sequestrate in foods. Trisoduim citrate is used as a flavour, and preservative in foods. This produces a white crystalline powder which is soluble in water. Citrates does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits. Pseudo-allergic reactions (intolerance) have been reported, but these are very rare.safe-
E332Potassium citrates: Monopotassium citrate, Potassium citrate(tripotassium citrate)Potassium citrate is the potassium salt of citric acid. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Potassium citrate is used as an acidity regulator and buffering agent in soft drinks. Tripostassium citrate can also be used as an antacid for the stomach. Citrates does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits. Pseudo-allergic reactions (intolerance) have been reported, but these are very rare.safe-
E333Calcium citrates: Monocalcium citrate, Dicalcium citrate, Calcium citrate (tricalcium citrate)Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Calcium citrate is used as an acidity regulator, preservative, anti-oxidant, sequestrant, firming agent, and sometimes a flavour in food. Citrates does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits. Pseudo-allergic reactions (intolerance) have been reported, but these are very rare.safe-
E334Tartaric acidTartaric acid is a natural organic acid that is in many plants especially grapes, bananas and tamarinds. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. Used in many products such as baking powder, chewing gum, jams and jellies, sweets, tinned fruit and vegetables, cocoa powder, and frozen dairy produce. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. It is not metabolised in the body; thus, it is excreted in the urine without side effects.suspicious-
E335Sodium tartrates: Monosodium tartrate, Disodium tartrateSodium tartrates are the sodium salts of tartaric acid. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. It is used as an acidity regulator, and anti-oxidant in food. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. It is not metabolised in the body; thus, it is excreted in the urine without side effects.suspicious-
E336Potassium tartrates: Monopotassium tartrate (cream of tartar), Dipotassium tartratePotassium tartrates are the postassium salts of tartaric acid. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. It is used as an acidity regulator, and anti-oxidant in food. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. It is not metabolised in the body; thus, it is excreted in the urine without side effects.suspicious-
E337Sodium potassium tartratePotassium sodium tartrates are the potassium and sodium salts (double salts) of tartaric acid. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. It is used as an acidity regulator, sequestrant, and stabiliser in food. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. It is not metabolised in the body; thus, it is excreted in the urine without side effects.suspicious-
E338Orthophosphoric acidOrthophosphoric acid is natural mineral inorganic acid, that is mined primarily in the USA. It is very inexpensive and often used as a substitute for other natural acids, as only a small amount of phosphoric acid is needed to get the same result as other organic acids. It is used in foods as an acidity regulator, anti-oxidant, and flavour enhancer. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. It has no side effects. safe-
E339Sodium phosphates: Monosodium phosphate, Disodium phosphate, Trisodium phosphateSodium phosphate is the sodium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.safe-
E340Potassium phosphates: Monopotassium phosphate, Dipotassium phosphate, Tripotassium phosphatePotassium phosphate is the potassium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.safe-
E341Calcium phosphates: Monocalcium phosphate, Dicalcium phosphate, Tricalcium phosphateCalcium phosphate is the calcium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.safe-
E342Ammonium phosphates: Monoammonium phosphate, Diammonium phosphateAmmonium phosphate is the ammonium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.unknown-
E343Magnesium phosphates: Monomagnesium phosphate, Dimagnesium phosphateMagnesium phosphate is the magnesium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.safe-
E344Lecitin citrateLecithin citrate is used as a preservative to prevent or delay spoilage in food, and also as an acidity regulator.unknown-
E345Magnesium citrateMagnesium citrate is the magnesium salt of citric acid, a natural weak organic acid found in many fruits, especially citrus fruits. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Magnesium citrate is used as an acidity regulator, and buffering agent in soft drinks, and also as a source of magnesium in vitamin supplements.unknown-
E349Ammonium malateAmmonium malate is the ammonium salt of malic acid. Commercially it is synthetically made. It acts as an acidity regulator, buffer, and a flavouring agent giving food a sharp tart taste.unknown-
E350Sodium malates: Sodium malate, Sodium hydrogen malateSodium malate is the sodium salt of malic acid. Commercially it is synthetically produced, and is used as an acidity regulator, buffer, and a flavouring agent giving food a sharp tart taste. It is not allowed in infant food, as infants lack the necessary enzymes to metabolise these compounds. suspicious-
E351Potassium malatePotassium malate is the potassium salt of malic acid. Commercially it is synthetically produced, and is used as an acidity regulator, buffer, and a flavouring agent giving food a sharp tart taste. It is not allowed in infant food, as infants lack the necessary enzymes to metabolise these compounds. suspicious-
E352Calcium malates: Calcium malate, Calcium hydrogen malateIt is the calcium salt of malic acid. Calcium malate is used as a thickener and flavouring. It is not allowed in infant food, as infants lack the necessary enzymes to metabolise these compounds. suspicious-
E353Metatartaric acidMetatartaric acid is produced by the internal esterification of tartaric acid. It is used to slow down or stop sedimentation in bottled wine. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight .suspicious-
E354Calcium tartrateCalcium tartrate is the calcium salt of tartaric acid. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. It is used as an acidity regulator, and preservative in food.unknown-
E355Adipic acidAdipic acid is a natural organic acid that is found in beets, and sugar cane. Commercially it is prepared from the oxidation of cyclohexanol by concentrated nitric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator and buffer in dairy products and many food items, as a sequestrant in oils, as a gelling agent in puddings and desserts etc, and as a flour treatment and leavening agent in breads, baked, and bakery products. It is used as an acidulant in commercial baking powders. As it is non-hygroscopic it is used to prolong the shelf life of powdered products. Daily Intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E356Sodium adipateSodium adipate is the sodium salt of adipic acid, a natural organic acid that is found in beets, and sugar cane. Commercially it is prepared from the oxidation of cyclohexanol by concentrated nitric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator in food. Daily Intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E357Potassium adipatePotassium adipate is the potassium salt of adipic acid, a natural organic acid that is found in beets, and sugar cane. Commercially it is prepared from the oxidation of cyclohexanol by concentrated nitric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator, and anti-oxidant in food. Daily Intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E359Ammonium adipateAmmonium adipate is the ammonium salt of adipic acid, a natural organic acid that is found in beets, and sugar cane. Commercially it is prepared from the oxidation of cyclohexanol by concentrated nitric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator in food.unknown-
E363Succinic acidSuccinic acid is a natural acid present in most fruits and vegetables. Commercially it is produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of maleic acid or its anhydride. Succinic acid is used as an acidity regulator, preservative, and a flavour enhancer in foods. None known side effects; it is metabolised by the body (it is a normal component of all body cells). unknown-
E365Sodium fumarateSodium fumarate is the sodium salt of fumaric acid. See E297 for similar details. Daily Intake: Up to 6 mg/kg body weight. None known side effects; it is metabolised by the body (it is a normal component of all body cells). unknown-
E366Potassium fumaratePotassium fumarate is the potassium salt of fumaric acid. See E297 for similar details.unknown-
E367Calcium fumarateCalcium fumarate is the calcium salt of fumaric acid. See E297 for similar details.unknown-
E368Ammonium fumarateAmmonium fumarate is the ammonium salt of fumaric acid. See E297 for similar details.unknown-
E370Heptonolactone 1,41,4-Heptonolactone is a gamma lactone commercially synthesised from hydroxycarboxylic acid. It is used as an acidity regulator, artificial flavouring substance, and a sequestrant in food. Used in powdered desserts, dried soups, and as artificial coconut, nut, and vanilla flavours. unknown-
E375Niacin, nicotinic acid, vitamin B3Nicotinic acid more commonly known as vitamin B3, is a natural water-soluble vitamin found in many products. It is an essential human nutrient, commercially prepared from nicotine. It is used as an anti-oxidant, and colour stabiliser in food, and as a source of Vitamin B3 in dietary supplements and vitamin-fortified foods. Used in beer, food supplements, canned vegetables, and infant formula. It is also used in bath salts and pharmaceuticals. None known side effects when used at normal concentrations. suspicious-
E380Triammonium citrateTriammonium citrate is the ammonium salt of citric acid, a natural weak organic acid found in many fruits, especially citrus fruits. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. This produces a white crystalline powder which is soluble in water, and is used as an acidity regulator, buffer, and emulsifier in food. None known side effects; citric acid is a normal component of all body cells. suspicious-
E381Ammonium ferric citrateAmmonium ferric citrates are a complex mixture of ammonia, iron, and citric acid, a natural weak organic acid found in many fruits, especially citrus fruits. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Its are used as an anti-caking agent in salt, and to enrich the iron content in iron-fortified food. Used in dietary supplements, processed meats, table-top sweeteners, bakery goods, batters, breakfast cereals, and infant formula supplements. Daily Intake: Up to 0.8 mg/kg body weight. suspicious-
E383Calcium glycerylphosphateCalcium glycerylphosphate is used as a mineral supplement, nutrient, and as an acidity regulator to change or maintain the pH in foods. Used in calcium-fortified foods, bakery, and dairy products. unknown-
E384Isopropyl citrateIsopropyl citrate is formed by esterifying citric acid with 2-propanol. The end result is a viscous, colourless syrup that is soluble in oils, and is used as a sequestrant, acidity regulator, and anti-oxidant in fatty foods. Used in fat spreads and oils. unknown-
E385Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, Calcium disodium EDTACalcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate is the calcium salt of disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate more commonly known as EDTA, which is a polyamino carboxylic acid that is produced synthetically from ethylenediamine, formaldehyde and sodium cyanide. Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Long-term exposure to high doses may result in depletion of metal(s) from the body (iron).suspicious-
E386Disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, Disodium EDTADisodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate more commonly known as EDTA, is a polyamino carboxylic acid that is produced synthetically from ethylenediamine, formaldehyde, and sodium cyanide. It produces a colourless, water-soluble solid that is used in many products as a chelating agent, anti-oxidant, preservative, stabiliser, and as a sequestrant. Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Long-term exposure to high doses may result in depletion of metal(s) from the body (iron).suspicious-
E387OxystearinOxystearin is a mixture of glycerides of partially oxidised stearic acids and other fatty acids. It is obtained by heating hydrogenated cottonseed or soybean oil under controlled conditions, in the presence of air and a suitable catalyst. It is used as a crystallisation inhibitor in vegetable oils and salad oils, a releasing agent in vegetable oils and vegetable shortenings, and as a de-foamer in the production of beet sugar and yeast processing. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. None known side effects in the concentrations used. The body treats it as fat. unknown-
E388Thiodipropionic acidThiodipropionic acid is a white crystalline powder with a slight characteristic odour that is soluble in hot water, acetone, and alcohol. It is synthetically made and is used as a secondary anti-oxidant to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. Used in fats, oils, and drinks that are prone to oxidation. Daily Intake: Up to 3 mg/kg body weight. None known side effects in the concentrations used.unknown-
E389Dilauryl thiodipropionateDilauryl thiodipropionate is an ester of thiodipropionic acid and lauryl alcohol. It is a white crystalline powder with a characteristic sweet odour that is insoluble in water, but soluble in most organic solvents (excluding alcohol). It is used as a secondary anti-oxidant to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. Used in fats, oils, and drinks that are prone to oxidation. unknown-
E390Distearyl thiodipropionateDistearyl thiodipropionate is an ester of thiodipropionic acid. It is a white crystalline powder with a characteristic sweet odour that is insoluble in water, but soluble in most organic solvents (excluding alcohol). It is used as an anti-oxidant to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. Used in fats, oils, and drinks that are prone to oxidation. unknown-
E391Phytic acidPhytic acid is isolated from plants that belong to the group of organic phosphates, extracted from the hulls of seeds, nuts and grains like wheat bran and flaxseed. It is isolated in the form of a clear to pale yellow viscous liquid. It is a strong chelator of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Phytic acid is used as an anti-oxidant to prevent oxidation in foods and wines (and reduce fermentation time), and as a preservative and stabiliser to prevent the change of properties or colours in foods.unknown-
E392Extracts of rosemaryExtract from Rosmarinus officinalis. Rosemary extract has been shown to improve the shelf life and heat stability of omega 3-rich oils, which are prone to rancidity. It can cause allergic skin reactions. According to recent European research, rosemary interferes with the absorption of iron and should not be consumed by those with iron deficiency anemia. Precaution is necessary for those displaying allergic reaction or are prone to epileptic seizures. Avoid consuming large quantities of rosemary especially if pregnant or breastfeeding.unknown-
E399Calcium lactobionateCalcium lactobionate is the calcium salt of lactobionic acid, which is a disaccharide formed from gluconic acid and galactose. It forms a white to off-white, odourless crystalline powder that dissolves in water. It is used as an anti-oxidant, stabiliser and firming agent in food. Used in dry pudding mixes, and mineral supplements. unknown-


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