Food additives – Additional chemicals

Additional chemicals codes: 1100–1599. New chemicals that do not fall into standard classification schemes.
Here there is a list with food additives used as additional chemicals.

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E1000Cholic acidCholic acid is a bile acid found in humans and in animals and is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It is extracted from the bile of cows or from ox. It is a colourless to white crystalline powder that has a bitter taste with a sweet aftertaste, and is insoluble in water, and soluble in acetic acid. It is used as an emulsifier in powdered egg. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 1.25 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E1001Choline saltsCholine is an essential nutrient that is vital to brain function and is normally grouped with Vitamin B complex. It occurs in a wide variety of animal and plant foods as phosphatidylcholine which is found in egg yolks, soy and cooked animal livers. Choline is found in many processed foods in the form of lecithin and is used as an emulsifier.unknown-
E1100AmylaseAmylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down) starches into simple sugars, and is widely used in bread making to break down complex starches found in flour. Amylase occurs naturally in yeast and when added to flour breaks down the starch to give a sweet taste, and causes the bread to rise as a result of CO2 production.unknown-
E1101Proteases: Protease, Papain, Bromelain, FicinProtease is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down) proteins into amino acids, and is widely used in bread making as a bread improver/flour treatment agent and raising agent. It acts on the yeast and gluten to improve the extensibility of the dough and strengthen the structure of the bread to retain the CO2 produced that causes the bread to rise. There are several types of proteases and some are derived from natural fruits. Proteases include papain (papaya), bromelain (pineapple), ficin (fig tree latex).unknown-
E1102Glucose oxidaseGlucose oxidase is an enzyme extracted from the fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium. It is highly specific for D-glucose causing it to break down into its metabolites. After a series of oxidation/reduction reactions the oxygen molecule is reduced to hydrogen peroxide. Glucose oxidase acts as an anti-oxidant, anti-microbial agent and is used as preservative in foods to prevent spoilage due to oxidation. Glucose oxidase is found naturally in honey.unknown-
E1103InvertaseInvertase is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down) sucrose from cane or beet sugar to fructose and glucose, usually in the form of an inverted sugar syrup. Commercially invertase is extracted from the yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. Invertase is primarily used in the confectionary industry to improve shelf life, increase sweetness, improve flavour and colour, and prevent crystallisation.avoid-
E1104LipasesLipase is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down) lipids, in particular triglycerides into fatty acids, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and glycerol. It acts specifically on the glycerol part of the lipid. Lipase is prepared from many fungi including Rhizopus niveus, Mucor miehei, Candida rugosa and Aspergillus oryzae (carrying a recombinant gene), or animal derived. Commercially it is used as an emulsifier and processing aid in the breakdown of fats and oils, and as a flour treatment agent in baked goods and bakery products, and as a flavour enhancer in fermented soy products.unknown-
E1105LysozymeLysozyme is an enzyme that is naturally occurring in hen's egg whites and can also be found in human tears, saliva, blood and milk. Commercially it is purified from hen egg whites and functions as an anti-bacterial agent by destroying the cell walls of gram positive bacteria. Lysozyme acts as a natural preservative that inhibits the growth of bacteria that lead to spoilage. It is mainly used in the cheese industry in the maturation of European cheeses. It is a protein and all proteins may cause allergic reactions. It should be avoided by vegans.suspicious-
E1200PolydextrosePolydextrose is a polysaccharide composed of dextrose (glucose) containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. It is commonly used as a sugar and fat replacer in many foods, as a source of soluble fibre, and can also be used synergistically with other high potency sweeteners. It acts as a humectant, stabiliser, and thickener. At high doses (over 90 grams) it acts as a laxative.suspicious-
E1201Polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVPPolyvinylpyrrolidone is a synthetic polymer made from the monomer N-Vinylpyrrolidone that produces an odourless off-white to yellow powder that is soluble in water. It is used as an emulsifier, glazing agent as a coating in fresh fruit, stabiliser, and thickener. It is also used in the wine industry as a stabiliser and fining agent in white wine, and as a clarifier in beer. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 50 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E1202PolyvinylpolypyrrolidonePolyvinylpolypyrrolidone is a synthetic highly cross-linked polymer of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) that produces an odourless off-white to yellow powder that is insoluble in water. Although it is insoluble in water, it readily absorbs water and swells very rapidly. It is used as a stabiliser and fining agent (clarifier) in white wine, beer, ciders and vinegar, and also as a colour retention agent to stabilise colours.unknown-
E1203Polyvinyl alcohol, PVAPolyvinyl alcohol is a water-soluble synthetic polymer. Polyvinyl alcohol has excellent film forming, emulsifying and adhesive properties. It is also resistant to oil, grease and solvents. It is odorless and nontoxic.unknown-
E1204PullulanPullulan is a natural polysaccharide produced from starch by fermentation by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. It produces an odourless, tasteless, white powder that is soluble in water and highly stable. It has extensive applications and in foods is used as an edible decorating film used in confectionary and bakery products (cake decals), as a coating to improve appearance and increase shelf life of foods, as a thickener in dressings and sauces to improve adhesion, and on-surface retention when used on pre-cooked meats and fish products, and as capsules from non-animal origin to be used in pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements.unknown-
E1400Dextrin, Dextrins, Roasted starch white and yellowDextrins are a groups of carbohydrate polymers prepared by roasting starch in the presence of an acid catalyst that changes the properties of the starch. Starch is a natural polysaccharide derived from the seeds, roots, and leaves of corn, wheat, potato, rice, tapioca and sago. The properties of dextrin change with the heat and acid treatment applied, as does the varying degree of solubility in cold water. The end result is a very fine white or yellow powder that is soluble in water and used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder.unknown-
E1401Acid-treated starch, Modified starchAcid treated starch is a carbohydrate polymer prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic acids such as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid, which is later neutralised by the use of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder in food.unknown-
E1402Alkaline modified starchAlkaline treated starch is a carbohydrate polymer prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic alkalis such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, which is later neutralised by the addition of an acid like hydrochloric acid. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder.unknown-
E1403Bleached starchBleached starch is prepared by treating starch with a very light oxidation using various acids such as sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, peracetic acid, or ammonium persulphate. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder.unknown-
E1404Oxidized starchPrepared by treating starch with hypochlorite. The starch is partially degraded and oxidised. High concentrations cause diarrhoea and kidney defects in animals.suspicious-
E1405Enzyme treated starchEnzyme treated starch is prepared by treating starch with amylase. This causes the starch to partially hydrolyse (breakdown) to form porous starch granules which when added to water gelatinised with a low viscosity. The longer the solution is boiled the more the viscosity and level of biodegration change. The properties of the degraded starch also differs when using different starch sources. Enzyme treated starch is used as a thickener and stabiliser in foods such as instant soups, broth dishes, and hot instant drinks.unknown-
E1410Monostarch phosphateMonostarch phosphate is prepared by treating starch with phosphoric acid. This causes the starch to partially hydrolyse (breakdown).unknown-
E1411Distarch glycerolDistarch glycerol is prepared by treating starch with glycerol. This causes the starch to partially hydrolyse (breakdown) to form white or nearly white powder, granules, or flakes (if pregeatinised). The resulting starch is more stable against heat, acids, alkalis and starch degrading enzymes. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods.unknown-
E1412Distarch phosphateDistarch phosphate is prepared by the esterification of starch with sodium trimetaphosphate or phosphorus oxychloride. The result is a white or nearly white powder or granules, or flakes. Starch phosphates are stable against heat and acids and are used as thickeners, stabilisers and binders.unknown-
E1413Phosphated distarch phosphatePhosphated distarch phosphate is prepared by undergoing a combination of treatments. The starch is treated with phosphoric acid then esterified with sodium trimetaphosphate or phosphorus oxychloride to produce a white or nearly white powder, granules, or flakes. It is a modified resistant starch, meaning it's considered as a dietary fibre. It is derived from high amylose starch and contains a minimum of 70% fibre. It is stable against heat and acids and is used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder in particular for foods that are freeze-thawed.unknown-
E1414Acetylated distarch phosphateAcetylated distarch phosphate is prepared by treating starch with phosphorus oxychloride and acetic acid. It produces a white powder which has a potato starch odour that has good stability (even under mild acidic conditions), high viscosity, and resistant to coagulation. It is predominately used as a thickener and binder in soups, vegetable and meat sauces, and salad dressings. It is also used as a thickener, stabiliser, and texturing agent in mayonnaises, dressings, ketchup, and fruit concentrates, jams, marmalades, jellies, and purees. May cause diarrhoea.suspicious-
E1420Acetylated starchStarch Acetate Esterified with Acetic Anhydride, is prepared by treating starch with acetic acid anhydride. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in foods. May cause diarrhoea.suspicious-
E1421Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetateStarch Acetate Esterified with Vinyl Acetate is prepared by treating starch with vinyl acetate. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in foods. May cause diarrhoea.suspicious-
E1422Acetylated distarch adipate Acetylated distarch adipate is prepared by treating starch with adipic anhydride and acetic anhydride. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in foods.unknown-
E1423Acetylated distarch glycerolAcetylated distarch glycerol is prepared by treating starch with acetic acid anhydride and glycerol to improve stability at high temperatures and after cooling. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in foods. unknown-
E1430Distarch glycerine Distarch glycerine is prepared by treating starch with glycerol. This causes the starch to partially hydrolyse (breakdown) to form white or nearly white powder, granules, or flakes (if pregeatinised). The resulting starch is more stable against heat, acids, alkalis and starch degrading enzymes. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods.unknown-
E1440Hydroxy propyl starchHydroxypropyl starch is prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide to form white or nearly white powder, granules, or flakes (if pregeatinised). It is stable against heat, acids, alkalis, and starch degrading enzymes, and is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods that are freeze-thawed and where better colour and shine are required. It may slow down the degradation of food in the intestine.suspicious-
E1441Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerineHydoxypropyl distarch glycerine is prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide, epichlorhydrine and glycerol. It is more stable against heat, acids, alkalis, starch degrading enzymes, and stable after cooling. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods, and in foods that require better colour and shine. It may cause diarrhoea.suspicious-
E1442Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphateHydroxypropyl distarch phosphate is prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide and phosphoric acid or phosphorus oxychloride. It is stable against heat, acids, alkalis, and starch degrading enzymes, and is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods that are freeze-thawed and where better colour and shine are required. It may slow down the degradation of food in the intestine.suspicious-
E1443Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerolHydoxypropyl distarch glycerol is prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide, epichlorhydrine and glycerol. It is more stable against heat, acids, alkalis, starch degrading enzymes, and stable after cooling. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods, and in foods that require better colour and shine.unknown-
E1450Starch sodium octenyl succinateStarch sodium octenyl succinate is prepared by treating starch with octenyl succinic anhydride (succinic acid and octanol). It is predominately used as a thickener and emulsifier for products containing oil-in-water emulsions, and is easily soluble in cold liquids. It effectively disperses oils and fats in sauces, improves colour and taste, avoids de-mixing, remains unchanged when food is frozen and thawed, and extends the shelf-life of products.unknown-
E1451Acetylated oxidised starch Acetylated oxidised starch is prepared by treating starch with sodium hypochlorite and acetic anhydride. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in many products to increase shelf life, gel strength, clarity, and to improve taste. It is especially used in very soft and gummy confectionary.unknown-
E1452Starch aluminium octenyl succinate0unknown-
E1501Benzylated hydrocarbonsNatural compounds, which constitute part of the flavour and fragrance of many plant species. They are commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Acceptable daily intake up to 5 mg/kg body weight. Skin problems may occur when used in cosmetics.unknown-
E1502Butanediol 1,3Butane- 1, 3 diol, or as it is more commonly known as 1,3-Butanediol, is an organic compound which is actually an alcohol. It is a colourless, viscous hygroscopic liquid that is very soluble, and is used as a solvent for food flavouring agents. Acceptable daily intake up to 4 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E1503Castor oilCastor oil is a natural triglyceride oil that is obtained from the seeds of the castor plant, Ricinus communis by a process called cold expression. It is also known as Ricinus oil. It is an colourless, tasteless, very pale yellow liquid that is used as a flavouring, and as a mould inhibitor in foods. Acceptable daily intake up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E1504Ethyl acetateEthyl acetate is an organic compound that is synthesised by the esterification reaction of ethanol and acetic acid. It produces a colourless liquid that has a very sweet smell, and is manufactured on a large scale due to it’s low cost, low toxicity, and pleasant odour. It is used mainly as a solvent, diluent, and flavour in food. Acceptable daily intake up to 6 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E1505Triethyl acetate or citrateTriethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid that is commercially produced as a colourless, odourless liquid that is used as a stabiliser, and plasticiser in food. It also has the ability to add a sour taste to foods and soft drinks. Acceptable daily intake up to 20 mg/kg body weight. avoid-
E1510EthanolEthanol is a clear, colourless liquid that is produced through the fermentation of sugar. It is used as a carrier solventA substance used to dilute, disperse, or dissolve a food additive or nutrient without altering it’s function, to enable better handling during application or use. for food additives. It is also used as an extraction solvent, and as an anti-microbial agent. Used in baked goods, confectionary, sauces, sprayable vegetable oil, alcoholic beverages, cough syrups and medicines, mouth wash, antiseptic, and hairspray. avoid-
E1516Glyceryl monoacetateGlyceryl monoacetate or monoacetin as it is more commonly known, is commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. It is a clear, combustible oily liquid with a bitter taste and fatty odour. It is used as a food additive for the solvency of flavourings, and is slightly soluble in water, and very soluble in ether or alcohol. Used in chocolate, cocoa, and confectionary.unknown-
E1517Glyceryl diacetate, DiacetinGlyceryl diacetate is commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. It is a clear, combustible oily liquid with a bitter taste, and a fatty odour. It is used as a food additive for the solvency of flavourings, it is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ether or alcohol. It is also used as an anti-fungal agent in topical skin treatments. Used in butter, topical skin treatments, and cigarette filters.unknown-
E1518Glyceryl triacetate, triacetinGlyceryl triacetate also known as triacetin is the triester of glycerol and acetic acid. It is a synthetic compound that produces a clear, combustible, and oily liquid with a bitter taste that is used as a food additive. It is slightly soluble in water but very soluble in ether or alcohol. It is used in the food industry as a solvent for flavourings, and is used as a humectant in pharmaceutical products. It is also used as a plasticiser and a solvent.unknown-
E1519Benzyl alcoholBenzyl alcohol is an organic compound that is produced by the hydrolysis of benzyl chloride using sodium hydroxide. It is a colourless liquid with a mild, pleasant aroma that is used as a solvent in food due to it low polarity, low toxicity, and low vapor pressure.unknown-
E1520Propylene glycol, Propandiol 1,2Propane 1,2-diol also known as propylene glycol, is an organic compound that is commercially produced by the hydration of propylene oxide, but can also be derived from glycerol. It is used as a humectant, solvent stabiliser. See E490. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. The acute oral toxicity of propylene glycol is very low, and large quantities are required to cause perceptible health damage in humans.unknown-
E1521Polyethylene glycol 8000Polyethylene glycerol is an organic compound that is produced by propylene oxide hydration. It produces a faintly sweet, clear, and colourless viscous liquid that is soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform. It is used as a solvent for food colours and flavours, as a humectant food additive, as a cooling agent for beer and wine, and as an emulsifier in orange bitters. Research: PEG 8000, has been shown to be a dietary preventive agent against colourectal cancer in animal modelsunknown-
E1525Hydroxy ethyl celluloseHydroxy ethyl cellulose is a polysaccharide that is prepared from cellulose that has been treated with alkali, ethylene oxide, and ethyl chloride. It is hygroscopic, ordourless, and white, or slightly yellowish, or greyish in colour. It comes in granules, powder, or as fibrous flakes. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, and thickener in food. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. In high concentrations it acts as a laxative.suspicious-


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