Eat Informed – Food Additives

food additives

Today’s food is full of additives. Are they dangerous?
Our app helps you find the answer. Try it, it’s free!

This app is the perfect tool while food shopping. In a second, you can find out if they are safe for you and your family or if they are suspicious or dangerous. It also lets you know if they are suitable for vegetarians, vegans or different religious groups.

So here they are: preservatives and sweetners, food colorings or taste enhancers, unveiled!

The app shows the ingredients’ legal status in Australia and New Zealand, Europa and the United States. It allows you to quickly check on more than 500 ingredients. You can search them by E-code, by name or by alternative names.

Internet connection is NOT required to use the app.

Features:
– You can search for food additives by E-number, by name or by alternative name(s).
– You can read the details on any additive with just one tap.
– You can filter additives based on text queries.
– The lists can be sorted by names or by E numbers.
– You can share a details page.
– It’s also possible to filter additives based on risks.
– A new favorites list can be managed by user.
– The history list retains the last additives that you searched.
– You can zoom in/out the description field in details page.
– There is a “shortcut” button in the list and details pages title for easy search.

Extra features:
– It allows you to check whether an additive is suitable for vegans, vegetarians, children, pregnant women, people with asthma or allergic reactions, or for people from different religions.
– You can update the app anytime if you have an internet connection.
– On our information on additives page, you can leave comments with references, which will be taken into account in the future versions of the additive database.
– It allows integration with Google search widget.
– Zoom in the description field in details page can be done by scale gesture.

General:
– Very small size. Our app will not eat up much memory
– Very flexible. It works in landscape, but also in portrait position

Facts:
“Some additives have been used for centuries; for example, preserving food by pickling (with vinegar), salting, as with bacon, preserving sweets or using sulfur dioxide as in some wines. With the advent of processed foods in the second half of the 20th century, many more additives have been introduced, of both natural and artificial origin.”
[wikipedia]

Some of them are harmless, many not so healthy and several are dangerous.
There is some controversy about adverse reactions to food additives, particularly in relation to their effects on children. Many people have experienced various negative reactions to food additives. Certain groups may be more susceptible to adverse effects, such as asthma sufferers, chemically sensitive and allergic individuals or hyperactive children.

Our own food additives database compilation can be seen here: Food additives and, of course, the page is open to comments, so, you can help us improve our database by adding comments.

Application Help

Here are a few screenshots (click to enlarge):

Price:
Current version:
Release date:
Download size:
Size on device:
Free
1.55
March 21, 2014
574 KB
964 KB

google play


amazon appstore


Eat Informed Food Additives - Android Market


Eat Informed Food Additives - Android Market


here


Food additives – Additional chemicals

Additional chemicals codes: 1100–1599. New chemicals that do not fall into standard classification schemes.
Here there is a list with food additives used as additional chemicals.

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E1000Cholic acidCholic acid is a bile acid found in humans and in animals and is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It is extracted from the bile of cows or from ox. It is a colourless to white crystalline powder that has a bitter taste with a sweet aftertaste, and is insoluble in water, and soluble in acetic acid. It is used as an emulsifier in powdered egg. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 1.25 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E1001Choline saltsCholine is an essential nutrient that is vital to brain function and is normally grouped with Vitamin B complex. It occurs in a wide variety of animal and plant foods as phosphatidylcholine which is found in egg yolks, soy and cooked animal livers. Choline is found in many processed foods in the form of lecithin and is used as an emulsifier.unknown-
E1100AmylaseAmylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down) starches into simple sugars, and is widely used in bread making to break down complex starches found in flour. Amylase occurs naturally in yeast and when added to flour breaks down the starch to give a sweet taste, and causes the bread to rise as a result of CO2 production.unknown-
E1101Proteases: Protease, Papain, Bromelain, FicinProtease is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down) proteins into amino acids, and is widely used in bread making as a bread improver/flour treatment agent and raising agent. It acts on the yeast and gluten to improve the extensibility of the dough and strengthen the structure of the bread to retain the CO2 produced that causes the bread to rise. There are several types of proteases and some are derived from natural fruits. Proteases include papain (papaya), bromelain (pineapple), ficin (fig tree latex).unknown-
E1102Glucose oxidaseGlucose oxidase is an enzyme extracted from the fungi Aspergillus niger and Penicillium. It is highly specific for D-glucose causing it to break down into its metabolites. After a series of oxidation/reduction reactions the oxygen molecule is reduced to hydrogen peroxide. Glucose oxidase acts as an anti-oxidant, anti-microbial agent and is used as preservative in foods to prevent spoilage due to oxidation. Glucose oxidase is found naturally in honey.unknown-
E1103InvertaseInvertase is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down) sucrose from cane or beet sugar to fructose and glucose, usually in the form of an inverted sugar syrup. Commercially invertase is extracted from the yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. Invertase is primarily used in the confectionary industry to improve shelf life, increase sweetness, improve flavour and colour, and prevent crystallisation.avoid-
E1104LipasesLipase is an enzyme that hydrolyses (breaks down) lipids, in particular triglycerides into fatty acids, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and glycerol. It acts specifically on the glycerol part of the lipid. Lipase is prepared from many fungi including Rhizopus niveus, Mucor miehei, Candida rugosa and Aspergillus oryzae (carrying a recombinant gene), or animal derived. Commercially it is used as an emulsifier and processing aid in the breakdown of fats and oils, and as a flour treatment agent in baked goods and bakery products, and as a flavour enhancer in fermented soy products.unknown-
E1105LysozymeLysozyme is an enzyme that is naturally occurring in hen's egg whites and can also be found in human tears, saliva, blood and milk. Commercially it is purified from hen egg whites and functions as an anti-bacterial agent by destroying the cell walls of gram positive bacteria. Lysozyme acts as a natural preservative that inhibits the growth of bacteria that lead to spoilage. It is mainly used in the cheese industry in the maturation of European cheeses. It is a protein and all proteins may cause allergic reactions. It should be avoided by vegans.suspicious-
E1200PolydextrosePolydextrose is a polysaccharide composed of dextrose (glucose) containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. It is commonly used as a sugar and fat replacer in many foods, as a source of soluble fibre, and can also be used synergistically with other high potency sweeteners. It acts as a humectant, stabiliser, and thickener. At high doses (over 90 grams) it acts as a laxative.suspicious-
E1201Polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVPPolyvinylpyrrolidone is a synthetic polymer made from the monomer N-Vinylpyrrolidone that produces an odourless off-white to yellow powder that is soluble in water. It is used as an emulsifier, glazing agent as a coating in fresh fruit, stabiliser, and thickener. It is also used in the wine industry as a stabiliser and fining agent in white wine, and as a clarifier in beer. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 50 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E1202PolyvinylpolypyrrolidonePolyvinylpolypyrrolidone is a synthetic highly cross-linked polymer of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) that produces an odourless off-white to yellow powder that is insoluble in water. Although it is insoluble in water, it readily absorbs water and swells very rapidly. It is used as a stabiliser and fining agent (clarifier) in white wine, beer, ciders and vinegar, and also as a colour retention agent to stabilise colours.unknown-
E1203Polyvinyl alcohol, PVAPolyvinyl alcohol is a water-soluble synthetic polymer. Polyvinyl alcohol has excellent film forming, emulsifying and adhesive properties. It is also resistant to oil, grease and solvents. It is odorless and nontoxic.unknown-
E1204PullulanPullulan is a natural polysaccharide produced from starch by fermentation by the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. It produces an odourless, tasteless, white powder that is soluble in water and highly stable. It has extensive applications and in foods is used as an edible decorating film used in confectionary and bakery products (cake decals), as a coating to improve appearance and increase shelf life of foods, as a thickener in dressings and sauces to improve adhesion, and on-surface retention when used on pre-cooked meats and fish products, and as capsules from non-animal origin to be used in pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements.unknown-
E1400Dextrin, Dextrins, Roasted starch white and yellowDextrins are a groups of carbohydrate polymers prepared by roasting starch in the presence of an acid catalyst that changes the properties of the starch. Starch is a natural polysaccharide derived from the seeds, roots, and leaves of corn, wheat, potato, rice, tapioca and sago. The properties of dextrin change with the heat and acid treatment applied, as does the varying degree of solubility in cold water. The end result is a very fine white or yellow powder that is soluble in water and used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder.unknown-
E1401Acid-treated starch, Modified starchAcid treated starch is a carbohydrate polymer prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic acids such as sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid, which is later neutralised by the use of sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder in food.unknown-
E1402Alkaline modified starchAlkaline treated starch is a carbohydrate polymer prepared by treating starch or starch granules with inorganic alkalis such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, which is later neutralised by the addition of an acid like hydrochloric acid. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder.unknown-
E1403Bleached starchBleached starch is prepared by treating starch with a very light oxidation using various acids such as sodium hypochlorite, sodium chlorite, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, peracetic acid, or ammonium persulphate. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder.unknown-
E1404Oxidized starchPrepared by treating starch with hypochlorite. The starch is partially degraded and oxidised. High concentrations cause diarrhoea and kidney defects in animals.suspicious-
E1405Enzyme treated starchEnzyme treated starch is prepared by treating starch with amylase. This causes the starch to partially hydrolyse (breakdown) to form porous starch granules which when added to water gelatinised with a low viscosity. The longer the solution is boiled the more the viscosity and level of biodegration change. The properties of the degraded starch also differs when using different starch sources. Enzyme treated starch is used as a thickener and stabiliser in foods such as instant soups, broth dishes, and hot instant drinks.unknown-
E1410Monostarch phosphateMonostarch phosphate is prepared by treating starch with phosphoric acid. This causes the starch to partially hydrolyse (breakdown).unknown-
E1411Distarch glycerolDistarch glycerol is prepared by treating starch with glycerol. This causes the starch to partially hydrolyse (breakdown) to form white or nearly white powder, granules, or flakes (if pregeatinised). The resulting starch is more stable against heat, acids, alkalis and starch degrading enzymes. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods.unknown-
E1412Distarch phosphateDistarch phosphate is prepared by the esterification of starch with sodium trimetaphosphate or phosphorus oxychloride. The result is a white or nearly white powder or granules, or flakes. Starch phosphates are stable against heat and acids and are used as thickeners, stabilisers and binders.unknown-
E1413Phosphated distarch phosphatePhosphated distarch phosphate is prepared by undergoing a combination of treatments. The starch is treated with phosphoric acid then esterified with sodium trimetaphosphate or phosphorus oxychloride to produce a white or nearly white powder, granules, or flakes. It is a modified resistant starch, meaning it's considered as a dietary fibre. It is derived from high amylose starch and contains a minimum of 70% fibre. It is stable against heat and acids and is used as a thickener, stabiliser and binder in particular for foods that are freeze-thawed.unknown-
E1414Acetylated distarch phosphateAcetylated distarch phosphate is prepared by treating starch with phosphorus oxychloride and acetic acid. It produces a white powder which has a potato starch odour that has good stability (even under mild acidic conditions), high viscosity, and resistant to coagulation. It is predominately used as a thickener and binder in soups, vegetable and meat sauces, and salad dressings. It is also used as a thickener, stabiliser, and texturing agent in mayonnaises, dressings, ketchup, and fruit concentrates, jams, marmalades, jellies, and purees. May cause diarrhoea.suspicious-
E1420Acetylated starchStarch Acetate Esterified with Acetic Anhydride, is prepared by treating starch with acetic acid anhydride. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in foods. May cause diarrhoea.suspicious-
E1421Starch acetate esterified with vinyl acetateStarch Acetate Esterified with Vinyl Acetate is prepared by treating starch with vinyl acetate. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in foods. May cause diarrhoea.suspicious-
E1422Acetylated distarch adipate Acetylated distarch adipate is prepared by treating starch with adipic anhydride and acetic anhydride. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in foods.unknown-
E1423Acetylated distarch glycerolAcetylated distarch glycerol is prepared by treating starch with acetic acid anhydride and glycerol to improve stability at high temperatures and after cooling. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in foods. unknown-
E1430Distarch glycerine Distarch glycerine is prepared by treating starch with glycerol. This causes the starch to partially hydrolyse (breakdown) to form white or nearly white powder, granules, or flakes (if pregeatinised). The resulting starch is more stable against heat, acids, alkalis and starch degrading enzymes. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods.unknown-
E1440Hydroxy propyl starchHydroxypropyl starch is prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide to form white or nearly white powder, granules, or flakes (if pregeatinised). It is stable against heat, acids, alkalis, and starch degrading enzymes, and is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods that are freeze-thawed and where better colour and shine are required. It may slow down the degradation of food in the intestine.suspicious-
E1441Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerineHydoxypropyl distarch glycerine is prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide, epichlorhydrine and glycerol. It is more stable against heat, acids, alkalis, starch degrading enzymes, and stable after cooling. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods, and in foods that require better colour and shine. It may cause diarrhoea.suspicious-
E1442Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphateHydroxypropyl distarch phosphate is prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide and phosphoric acid or phosphorus oxychloride. It is stable against heat, acids, alkalis, and starch degrading enzymes, and is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods that are freeze-thawed and where better colour and shine are required. It may slow down the degradation of food in the intestine.suspicious-
E1443Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerolHydoxypropyl distarch glycerol is prepared by treating starch with propylene oxide, epichlorhydrine and glycerol. It is more stable against heat, acids, alkalis, starch degrading enzymes, and stable after cooling. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods, and in foods that require better colour and shine.unknown-
E1450Starch sodium octenyl succinateStarch sodium octenyl succinate is prepared by treating starch with octenyl succinic anhydride (succinic acid and octanol). It is predominately used as a thickener and emulsifier for products containing oil-in-water emulsions, and is easily soluble in cold liquids. It effectively disperses oils and fats in sauces, improves colour and taste, avoids de-mixing, remains unchanged when food is frozen and thawed, and extends the shelf-life of products.unknown-
E1451Acetylated oxidised starch Acetylated oxidised starch is prepared by treating starch with sodium hypochlorite and acetic anhydride. It is used as a thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, and binder in many products to increase shelf life, gel strength, clarity, and to improve taste. It is especially used in very soft and gummy confectionary.unknown-
E1452Starch aluminium octenyl succinate0unknown-
E1501Benzylated hydrocarbonsNatural compounds, which constitute part of the flavour and fragrance of many plant species. They are commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Acceptable daily intake up to 5 mg/kg body weight. Skin problems may occur when used in cosmetics.unknown-
E1502Butanediol 1,3Butane- 1, 3 diol, or as it is more commonly known as 1,3-Butanediol, is an organic compound which is actually an alcohol. It is a colourless, viscous hygroscopic liquid that is very soluble, and is used as a solvent for food flavouring agents. Acceptable daily intake up to 4 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E1503Castor oilCastor oil is a natural triglyceride oil that is obtained from the seeds of the castor plant, Ricinus communis by a process called cold expression. It is also known as Ricinus oil. It is an colourless, tasteless, very pale yellow liquid that is used as a flavouring, and as a mould inhibitor in foods. Acceptable daily intake up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E1504Ethyl acetateEthyl acetate is an organic compound that is synthesised by the esterification reaction of ethanol and acetic acid. It produces a colourless liquid that has a very sweet smell, and is manufactured on a large scale due to it’s low cost, low toxicity, and pleasant odour. It is used mainly as a solvent, diluent, and flavour in food. Acceptable daily intake up to 6 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E1505Triethyl acetate or citrateTriethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid that is commercially produced as a colourless, odourless liquid that is used as a stabiliser, and plasticiser in food. It also has the ability to add a sour taste to foods and soft drinks. Acceptable daily intake up to 20 mg/kg body weight. avoid-
E1510EthanolEthanol is a clear, colourless liquid that is produced through the fermentation of sugar. It is used as a carrier solventA substance used to dilute, disperse, or dissolve a food additive or nutrient without altering it’s function, to enable better handling during application or use. for food additives. It is also used as an extraction solvent, and as an anti-microbial agent. Used in baked goods, confectionary, sauces, sprayable vegetable oil, alcoholic beverages, cough syrups and medicines, mouth wash, antiseptic, and hairspray. avoid-
E1516Glyceryl monoacetateGlyceryl monoacetate or monoacetin as it is more commonly known, is commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. It is a clear, combustible oily liquid with a bitter taste and fatty odour. It is used as a food additive for the solvency of flavourings, and is slightly soluble in water, and very soluble in ether or alcohol. Used in chocolate, cocoa, and confectionary.unknown-
E1517Glyceryl diacetate, DiacetinGlyceryl diacetate is commercially produced from acetic acid and glycerol. It is a clear, combustible oily liquid with a bitter taste, and a fatty odour. It is used as a food additive for the solvency of flavourings, it is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ether or alcohol. It is also used as an anti-fungal agent in topical skin treatments. Used in butter, topical skin treatments, and cigarette filters.unknown-
E1518Glyceryl triacetate, triacetinGlyceryl triacetate also known as triacetin is the triester of glycerol and acetic acid. It is a synthetic compound that produces a clear, combustible, and oily liquid with a bitter taste that is used as a food additive. It is slightly soluble in water but very soluble in ether or alcohol. It is used in the food industry as a solvent for flavourings, and is used as a humectant in pharmaceutical products. It is also used as a plasticiser and a solvent.unknown-
E1519Benzyl alcoholBenzyl alcohol is an organic compound that is produced by the hydrolysis of benzyl chloride using sodium hydroxide. It is a colourless liquid with a mild, pleasant aroma that is used as a solvent in food due to it low polarity, low toxicity, and low vapor pressure.unknown-
E1520Propylene glycol, Propandiol 1,2Propane 1,2-diol also known as propylene glycol, is an organic compound that is commercially produced by the hydration of propylene oxide, but can also be derived from glycerol. It is used as a humectant, solvent stabiliser. See E490. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. The acute oral toxicity of propylene glycol is very low, and large quantities are required to cause perceptible health damage in humans.unknown-
E1521Polyethylene glycol 8000Polyethylene glycerol is an organic compound that is produced by propylene oxide hydration. It produces a faintly sweet, clear, and colourless viscous liquid that is soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform. It is used as a solvent for food colours and flavours, as a humectant food additive, as a cooling agent for beer and wine, and as an emulsifier in orange bitters. Research: PEG 8000, has been shown to be a dietary preventive agent against colourectal cancer in animal modelsunknown-
E1525Hydroxy ethyl celluloseHydroxy ethyl cellulose is a polysaccharide that is prepared from cellulose that has been treated with alkali, ethylene oxide, and ethyl chloride. It is hygroscopic, ordourless, and white, or slightly yellowish, or greyish in colour. It comes in granules, powder, or as fibrous flakes. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, and thickener in food. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. In high concentrations it acts as a laxative.suspicious-


Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.

Food additives – Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous codes: 900–999; Subranges: 900–909 waxes, 910–919 synthetic glazes, 920–929 improving agents, 930–949 packaging gases, 950–969 sweeteners, 990–999 foaming agents.
Here there is a list with food additives used as miscellaneous.

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E900Dimethyl polysiloxane, PDMS dimethiconeDimethylpolysiloxane and Polydimethylsiloxane are the most common synthetic polymer of the siloxane polymer group, commonly known as silicones. They are used as anti-caking and anti-foaming agents. Used in many Asian dishes. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : Up to 1,5 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E901Beeswax , white and yellowNatural polymer produces by bees. The white wax is bleached by sunlight or hydrogen peroxide. The wax is an exudate of the bees and some vegans accept this product.unknown-
E902Candelilla waxNatural polymer produced from the Mexican trees Euphorbia antisyphilitica , E. cerifera and Pedilanthus pavonis.unknown-
E903Carnauba wax, Brazil wax , Palm waxNatural polymer produced from the leaves of the Carnauba palm (Copernica cerifera) in Brazil. The wax is a hard yellow-brown wax. It is obtained from the leaves of the carnauba palm by collecting them, beating them to loosen the wax, then refining and bleaching the wax. It has a glossy finish, acts as a lubricant, and is an anti-caking, and surface finishing agent which makes it ideal for use in many food products. It is also widely used in cosmetics. Canauba wax is widely used in cosmetics and can cause dermal eczema.unknown-
E904ShellacShellac is a natural, organic resin that is secreted by the female lac beetle (Laccifera lacca) on trees found in India and Thailand. It is used in fruit and vegetable coatings, chewing gum and confectionary. Vegans generally avoid the product as there are still lice in the raw product. These are eliminated during purification.unknown-
E905ParaffinsParaffins encompasses a range of petroleum derived products including paraffin wax, mineral oil, petrolatum, petroleum jelly, and microcrystalline wax. It is used as protective coating on fresh fruit and vegetables to make them look shiny and appealing whilst also protecting them from spoilage. It is also used as a glazing agent to give chocolate and confectionary a nice glossy finish.unknown-
E905aMineral oilMineral oil otherwise known as liquid paraffin or Nujol is an odourless, tasteless clear mineral oil comprised of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. As a food additive is it used as a protective coating on fresh fruit and vegetables to protect them from spoilage, and on other products that require a shiny and appealing appearance. It is also used as a releasing agent applied to baking tins to ensure bakery items are released from the pans after cooking.unknown-
E905bPetrolatum, VaselinePetrolatum otherwise known as petroleum jelly or soft paraffin, is a colourless to yellowish-white, semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons. It is predominately used in personal care products, like vaseline and moisturisers. Used in personal care products, like vaseline and moisturisers. Not known as a food additive.unknown-
E905cPetroleum wax: Microcrystalline wax, Paraffin waxMicrocrystalline wax is a type of creamy white to dark brown wax produced by de-oiling of petrolatum as part of the petroleum refining process. In contrast to paraffin, microcrystalline wax is a lot finer and may vary in character depending on the crude oil used. See E907. In foods, waxed/surface treated fruit and vegetables, chewing gum, hard and soft confectionary, and rind of ripened cheese to name but a few.unknown-
E906Gum benzoicNatural resin polymer derived from the bark of trees from the genus Styrax from Southeast Asia. Used in bleaching agent for bread rolls, flour, cheese products, dried egg, tinned tomatoes, and mineral supplements. See also benzoic acid, E210.unknown-
E907Hydrogenated poly-1-deceneMicrocrystalline wax is a type of creamy white to dark brown wax produced by de-oiling of petrolatum as part of the petroleum refining process. In contrast to paraffin, microcrystalline wax is a lot finer and may vary in character depending on the crude oil used. See E905c.unknown-
E908Rice bran waxNatural polymer derived from rice bran. The FDA has approved fatty acid methyl esters as a direct food additive in glazing agents, flavourings and coatings.unknown-
E909Spermaceti waxSpermaceti is the wax present in the head cavity of the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus. Purified spermaceti forms a light mass of white crystals which can be powdered. It can be fused with bee wax and other fatty compounds (oils, fatty acids) and used as glazing agents. After the international regulation concerning whale captures, it is no longer produced and sold. It is now replaced by synthetic spermaceti made of pure cetyl palmitate or mixtures based on jojoba. Coating wax for citrus fruits.unknown-
E910Wax esters, L-cysteineA naturally occurring sulphur containing amino acid, derived from cystine, that the body needs to produce Glutathione, one of the body's major antioxidants. Natural sources of cysteine include egg yolks, meat, red pepper, garlic, onion, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, dairy products and some cereals. It is commercially produced from hair, both human and animal (duck feathers) and also synthetically. Regulations vary and depend on how the additive is being used and whether it's synthetic or animal derived. It is used as an improving agent and flour treatment agent in flour and bakery products.unknown-
E911Methyl esters of fatty acidsFatty acid methyl esters are aliphatic organic esters primarily prepared by the reaction of a carboxylic acid derived from natural fats and oils and methanol. The FDA has approved fatty acid methyl esters as a direct food additive in glazing agents, flavourings and coatings.unknown-
E912Montanic acid estersA hard wax obtained by solvent extraction of lignite (brown coal). Its colour ranges from dark brown to light yellow when crude, or white when refined. It consists of non-glyceride carboxylic acid esters, free acids and resins. It's predominately used as a stabiliser, as a flavour (citrus taste), and in chewing gum.unknown-
E913Lanolin, sheep wool greaseLanolin is a natural greasy yellow substance obtained from the fleece of sheep. Sebum (wool grease) is extracted from the wool, cleaned, refined, bleached, deodorised, and dried to produce anhydrous lanolin. Not used by vegans.unknown-
E914Oxidized polyethylene waxOxidized polyethylene wax is low molecular weight ethylene derived polymer that is used in food preparation as a protective and water-impermeable coating for citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, grapefruit etc.). Found in foods such as bakery products, dietary supplements, nutrients, stabiliser in cereals, desserts, flour, lard, and dry vinegars, and as an anti-caking agent in table salt.unknown-
E915Esters of colophonyA resin obtained from the pine tree Pinus silvestris and related species.unknown-
E916Calcium iodateCalcium iodate (also called lautarite) is a compound of calcium and iodate anion. It is used as a dough conditioner and an oxidizing agent.unknown-
E917Potassium iodate, Iodic acid, Potassium saltPotassium iodate (KIO3) is a chemical compound. It is sometimes used in radiation treatment, as it can replace radioactive iodine from the thyroid. It is highly oxidizing and is also used for the iodisation of table salt and as a flour treatment agent.unknown-
E918Nitrogen oxides, Laughing gas, Sweet airNitrous oxide and water are formed as a result of heating ammonium nitrate at very high temperatures. Used as a propellant in aerosol spray cans for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking sprays.unknown-
E919Nitrogen chlorideNitrogen trichloride is a chemical compound composed of one nitrogen molecule and three chloride molecules. It is a yellow, oily, pungent smelling liquid which is formed as a byproduct of the reaction between ammonia derivatives and chlorine. It is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour and as a maturing agent in flour.unknown-
E920L-Cysteine hydrochloridesA naturally occurring sulphur containing amino acid, derived from cystine, that the body needs to produce Glutathione, one of the body's major antioxidants. It can be obtained from animal sources, including pork.unknown-
E921L-cystineA naturally occurring sulphur containing amino acid, produced by the digestion of proteins. It is then broken down to L-cysteine from which glutathione can be synthesized, one of the body's major anti-oxidants. One of the richest sources of L-cystine is unpasteurised or low-heat pasteurised undenatured whey proteins from milk. It is used as an improving agent and flour treatment agent to enhance and stabilise bread and bakery products. It can be obtained from animal sources, including pork.unknown-
E922Potassium persulphatePotassium persulphate is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Used in beer making, soft drinks, carbonated beverages, sherbet lollies and confectionary, noodles, baked goods, and also used as an additive in baking.unknown-
E923Ammonium persulphateAmmonium persulphate is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Used in bakery goods, soft drinks, cocoa, confectionary, custard powder, mead and wine. unknown-
E924Potassium bromatePotassium bromate is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Potassium bromate has been found to be carcinogenic and is banned by most countries for use as a food additive.unknown-
E924bCalcium bromateCalcium bromate is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising.unknown-
E925ChlorineChlorine is naturally found in nature in the earth and in seas and is part of common salt (sodium chloride). Commercially it is produced in various ways, one being from sodium chloride solution (brine). Chlorine is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E926Chlorine dioxide, ChlorylChlorine dioxide is synthetically produced from sodium chlorite. It is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour. The flour is gassed in special ovens using chlorine dioxide which bleaches and matures the flour. Chlorine dioxide destroys vitamin E and can react with other proteins in the flour to cause adverse reactions. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : Up to 30 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E927aAzodicarbonamide, Azobisformamide, DiazenedicarboxamideObtained from carbonamide. Used to waxed and surface treat fruit and vegetables, chewing gum, hard and soft candies (to look shiny and appealing), chocolate, and the rind of ripened cheese to name but a few. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) : Up to 45 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E927bCarbamide, UreaCarbamide is an organic compound commonly known as urea that is found in mammalian urine. Commercially it is synthesised from inorganic ammonia and carbon dioxide. It acts as a yeast nutrient for fermented products, and as a browning agent that induces browning for commercially baked goods. Used in beer, wine, and commercially made baked goods. unknown-
E928Benzoyl peroxideBenzoyl peroxide is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, and milk that is used for the production of white Italian cheeses. It is also used as a dough strengthener to allow higher rising. Used in flour products, and breads. It is also used to bleach milk that is used for the production of white Italian cheeses. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 40 mg/kg body weight.suspicious-
E929Acetone peroxideAcetone peroxide is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, a dough strengthener to allow higher rising, and a maturing agent. It is commercially produced from hydrogen peroxide and acetone. Used in flour products, and breads.suspicious-
E930Calcium peroxideCalcium peroxide is a strong oxidising, synthetically produced chemical that is used as a bleaching agent to whiten flour, a dough strengthener to allow higher rising, and a maturing agent. In foods, waxed/surface treated fruit and vegetables, chewing gum, hard and soft confectionary, and rind of ripened cheese to name but a few.unknown-
E938ArgonArgon is a natural inert gas that is the most abundant in the atmosphere and most frequently used commercially. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, and non-toxic in both liquid and gas forms. It is predominately used as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation. Used in fresh vegetables and meat.unknown-
E939HeliumHelium is a natural inert gas that is the second most abundant in the universe after hydrogen. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, unreactive, and non-toxic in gas form. Commercially helium is extracted by fractional distillation from natural gas. It is predominately used as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation. Used in many gas packed products.unknown-
E940Dichlorodifluoromethane, Carbon dichloride difluoride, Freon 12, Propellant 12Dichlorodifluoromethane is an inert synthetic gas that is non-reactive, non-toxic and a gas at room temperature. It acts as an aerosol spray propellant, and liquid freezant (direct contact freezing agent for food) when compressed in an aerosol can. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 1,5 mg/kg body weight. It is banned in many countries due to concerns about being a major contributor to ozone depletion.avoid-
E941NitrogenNitrogen is an inert natural gas that is the most abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. It is odourless, colourless, and tasteless. It is used as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation. Due to it's low solubility in water, it helps prevent package collapse. It is also used as an aerosol spray propellant.safe-
E942Nitrous oxide, Laughing gas, Sweet airNitrous oxide and water are formed as a result of heating ammonium nitrate at very high temperatures. Nitrous oxide is an inert gas that is odourless and colourless, and is predominately used as a spray can propellant, in particular for whipping cream and cooking oil sprays. It doesn't change the chemical composition of the contents so it's the product of choice. Furthermore it is used as a packaging gas because it inhibits the growth of bacteria, acts as an anti-oxidant and doesn't cause food spoilage. See also E918.safe-
E943aButaneButane is an inert natural gas produced from petroleum. As a food additive, butane is used as a propellant in aerosol spray cans for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking sprays. Used as a propellant and aerating agent in foamed or sprayed food products.unknown-
E943bIso-Butane, MethylpropaneIsobutane is an inert natural gas and is an isomer of butane. As a food additive, isobutane is used as a propellant in aerosol spray cans for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking sprays. Used as a propellant and aerating agent in foamed or sprayed food products.unknown-
E944PropanePropane is an inert natural gas produced from petroleum. As a food additive, butane is used as a propellant in aerosol spray cans for vegetable oil-based aerosol cooking sprays and water-based emulsion cooking sprays.unknown-
E945Chloropentafluoroethane, Freon 115Chloropentafluoroethane was once used as a refrigerant but banned in many countries due to concerns about being a major contributor to ozone depletion. Used as a propellant and aerating agent in foamed or sprayed food products. Used in cheese, jelly, and canned fruits and vegetables.unknown-
E946Octafluorocyclobutane, Freon-C-318, PerfluorocyclobutaneOctafluorocyclobutane is used as a refrigerant to replace ozone-deleting refrigerants. As a food additive Octafluorocyclobutane may be safely used as a propellant and aerating agent in foamed or sprayed food products, alone or in conjunction with carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide. Used in jelly, raw meat cuts, poultry, and artificially sweetened preserves.unknown-
E948OxygenOxygen is a natural gas that is the third most abundant in the universe after hydrogen and helium. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, highly reactive, and non-toxic in gas form. Commercially oxygen is extracted by various chemical methods. As a food additive it is predominately used as a packaging gas for fresh vegetables, and in meat by allowing the meat to bloom into a nice cherry red colour that's visually appealing and preservative free. The colour of the meat can be controlled by adjusting the amount of oxygen.safe-
E949HydrogenHydrogen is a natural gas that is the most abundant in the universe. It is odourless, colourless, tasteless, and non-toxic. Commercially hydrogen is produced in many different ways but economically from hydrocarbons. It is predominately used as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation.safe-
E950Acesulfame potassiumAcesulfame potassium is a non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean, sweet taste with a slight bitter aftertaste. It is commercially made by the transformation of acetoacetic acid in combination with potassium (natural mineral) to form a white crystalline powder.unknown-
E951AspartameAspartame is essentially a non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 160-200 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean sweet taste with slower onset and a prolonged sweet aftertaste. Aspartame is the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. Lifelong consumption of aspartame probably increases the risk of cancer. Pregnant women should avoid it.danger-
E952Cyclamic acid and its sodium and calcium saltsCyclamate is the sodium and calcium salt of cyclamic acid used as a non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 30 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar). It is chemically prepared from cyclohexylsulfamic acid to form an odourless white crystalline powder that is soluble in water, and is stable under heat and cold conditions. It is synergistic in effect, often used with saccharin to enhance the sweetness, mask the bitter aftertaste, and increase the products stability and shelf life. Animal studies indicated that it causes cancer.avoid-
E953Isomalt, IsomaltitolIsomalt is a low-caloric sugar-free bulk sweetener derived from the sugar in beets and is a member of the polyols or sugar alcohols. It can replace sugar in a 1:1 ratio, has half the calories, and the same texture and appearance of table sugar. Isomalt is a mixture of the hydrogenated disaccharides gluco-sorbitol and gluco-mannitol. It is also used as a bulking agent, an anti-caking agent that prevents stickiness in baked goods and candies, and an anti-browning agents that prevents caramelisation and browning.unknown-
E954Saccharin and its sodium, potassium and calcium saltsSaccharin and its sodium, potassium, and calcium salts are used as non-caloric artificial sweeteners which are 200-700 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar) with a bitter and metallic after taste when used in high concentrations. Saccharin is chemically prepared by the oxidation of o-toluenesulfonamide to form insoluble odourless white crystals. Many studies on animals have shown that saccharin can cause cancer.danger-
E955Sucralose, Trichlorogalactosucrose, TGSSucralose is the only non-caloric artificial sweetener made from sugar. It is 400-800 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar) and tastes like sugar with a lingering sweet aftertaste. It is chemically produced by the selective chlorination of sucrose (sugar) in which three hydroxyl groups are replaced with chlorine.unknown-
E956AlitameAlitame is a high potency essentially non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 2000 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean, sweet taste with no aftertaste. It is a derivative of the dipeptide composed of the amino acids aspartic acid and alanine, to form a white crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water.unknown-
E957ThaumatinThaumatin is a natural mixture of intensely sweet proteins (thaumatins) isolated from the arils of the katemfe fruit (Thaumatococcus danielli) native to west Africa. It produces an odourless cream coloured powder that is highly water-soluble, stable to heat and acidic conditions. It is considered to be a high potency non-caloric sweetener as it doesn't contribute carbohydrates, and is 3000 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar).unknown-
E958GlycyrrhizinGlycyrrhizin is a triterpenoid saponin glycoside extracted from the liquorice root Glycyrrhiza glabra that produces an odourless white crystalline powder that is soluble in hot water, but insoluble in cold water. It is used as a natural non-caloric sweetener that is 50-100 times sweeter that sucrose (sugar).unknown-
E959Neohesperidine dihydrochalconeNeohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is a natural high potency non-caloric sweetener derived from citrus oranges which is 1500-1800 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar). It is commercially produced by extracting neohesperidin from seville oranges and citrus and then hydrogenating this with alkali to make Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone. unknown-
E960Steviol glycosides, SteviosideStevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves of stevia rebaudiana bertoni plant to produce a white powder in pure form that is readily soluble in water and is heat and pH stable. Commercially it is available in powder or liquid form. It causes many controversial debates.avoid-
E961NeotameNeotame is a high potency non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 7000-13000 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean sweet taste. It is also used as a flavour enhancer especially in mint flavoured products, or to modify and mask the flavour of products containing soy or have been vitamin fortified. It is a derivative of the dipeptide composed of the amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine, to form a white to off-white powder.unknown-
E962Aspartame-acesulfame saltAspartame-acesulfame salt is a non-caloric artificial sweetener which is 350 times sweeter than sucrose (sugar), that has a clean sweet taste. Commercially it is made by combining and heating two parts of aspartame and 1 part of acesulfame potassium in an acidic solution, then allowing it to crystallise.avoid-
E965Maltitol, Maltitol syrupMaltitol is a low-caloric sugar-free bulk sweetener that is a member of the polyols or sugar alcohols. It has about 90% of the sweetness of sucrose (sugar) with a clean sweet taste that can also be used synergistically with other sweeteners. Maltitol is a disaccharide produced by the hydrogenation of maltose obtained from starch.unknown-
E966LactitolLactitol is a low-caloric sugar-free bulk sweetener that is a member of the polyols or sugar alcohols. It has about 40% of the sweetness of sucrose (sugar) with a clean sweet taste with no aftertaste, that can also be used synergistically with other sweeteners like acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin and sucralose. Lactitol is a disaccharide produced by the hydrogenation of lactose derived from whey (milk). It may cause bloating and flatulence. In intolerant persons it can act as a laxative.suspicious-
E967Xylitol, XyliteXylitol is a natural sugar alcohol (polyols) sweetener found in many fibrous fruits and vegetables such as berries, corn, mushrooms, and plums. Commercially it is produced from birch, other hard wood trees, and fibrous vegetables. It has about the same sweetness as sucrose (sugar) with a clean, sweet taste with no aftertaste, and imparts a cooling sensation. It may cause bloating and flatulence. In intolerant persons it can act as a laxative.suspicious-
E968ErythritolErythritol is a non-caloric sugar-free bulk sweetener that is a member of the polyols or sugar alcohols. It has about 60-70% of the sweetness of sucrose (sugar) with a clean sweet taste with a cooling sensation, but with no aftertaste. It occurs naturally in fruits (such as grapes and melons) and fermented foods, but commercially is prepared by the fermentation of glucose by the yeast Moniliella polinis.unknown-
E999Quillaia extractQuillaia extract consists mainly of saponins which are extracted from the bark of the Quillaia Saponaria Molina or Quillay Bark trees that are native to Peru and Chile. The colour and taste of the extract is depended on the level of purity. Quillaia extract is mainly used as a foaming agent in beverages (see list below) and also as a humectant in baked goods, frozen dairy products, and puddings.unknown-


Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.

Food additives – Antibiotics

Antibiotics range: 700–799. Available codes: 700–717.
An antibacterial is an agent that inhibits bacterial growth or kills bacteria.
Here there is a list with food additives used as antibiotics.

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E700BacitracinBacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy. As a toxic and difficult-to-use antibiotic, bacitracin does not work well orally. However, it is very effective topically, and is a common ingredient of eye and skin antibiotic preparations. Its action is on Gram-positive cell walls. It can cause contact dermatitis and cross-reacts with allergic sensitivity to sulfa-drugs.unknown-
E701TetracyclinesTetracyclines are a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics whose general usefulness has been reduced with the onset of bacterial resistance. Side-effects from tetracyclines are not common, but of particular note is phototoxicity. It increases the risk of sunburn under exposure to light from the sun or other sources. They may cause stomach or bowel upsets, and, on rare occasions, allergic reactions. Tetracyclines are contraindicated for use in children under 8 years of age.unknown-
E702ChlortetracyclineChlortetracycline (trade name Aureomycin, Lederle) is a tetracycline antibiotic. See E701 for similar details.unknown-
E703OxytetracyclineOxytetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic that is active against a wide variety of bacteria. See E701 for similar details.unknown-
E704OleandomycinOleandomycin is a macrolide antibiotic. It is synthesized from strains of Streptomyces antibioticus. It is weaker than erythromycin.unknown-
E705Penicillin-G-potassiumPenicillin G potassium is a colorless or white crystal, or a white crystalline powder which is odorless, or practically so, and moderately hygroscopic. Penicillin G potassium is very soluble in water. The pH of the reconstituted product is between 6.0-8.5. Benzylpenicillin, commonly known as penicillin G, is the gold standard type of penicillin. Adverse effects can include hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, fever, joint pains, rashes, angioedema, anaphylaxis, serum sickness-like reaction. Rarely CNS toxicity including convulsions (especially with high doses or in severe renal impairment), interstitial nephritis, haemolytic anaemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Also reported diarrhoea (including antibiotic-associated colitis).unknown-
E706Penicillin-G-sodiumPenicillin G sodium, a water soluble benzylpenicillin, is a white to almost white crystalline powder which is almost odorless and/or after reconstitution a colorless solution. See E705 for similar details.unknown-
E707Penicillin-G-procainePenicillin G procaine is an equimolar salt of procaine and penicillin G. It occurs as white crystals or a white, microcrystalline powder and is slightly soluble in water. See E705 for similar details.unknown-
E708Penicillin-G-benzathynePenicillin G benzathine is prepared by the reaction of dibenzylethylene diamine with two molecules of penicillin G. See E705 for similar details.unknown-
E710SpiramycinsSpiramycins are a class of antibiotics, produced by the mould Streptomyces ambofaciens.unknown-
E711VirginiamycinsAn antibiotic mixture of virginiamycin M1 and virginiamycin S1, produced in cultures of Streptomyces virginiae; active against gram-positive cocci. Used mostly as a feed additive for pigs to promote growth.unknown-
E712Flavomycin, FlavophospholipolFlavomycin is a performance enhancer for use in pigs, poultry, cattle, rabbits, and aquatic species. Flavomycin allows for the early establishment of normal gut microflora by sparing beneficial lactic acid producing bacteria. unknown-
E713TylosinTylosin is an antibiotic, produced by the mould Streptomyces fradiae. Antibiotic against fungi and moulds. Acceptable Daily Intake: Up to 0,2 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E714MonensinA broad-spectrum antibiotic obtained from the actinomycete Streptomyces cinnamonensis and used chiefly as an additive to beef cattle feed.unknown-
E715AvoparcinAvoparcin is a glycopeptide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces candidus.unknown-
E716SalinomycinSalinomycin is a sodium salt of polyether of monocarboxylic acid, produced by Streptomyces albus E-766. It is used as an additive on the prevention of coccidiosis in the chickens reared for laying.unknown-
E717AvilamycinAvilamycin is a mixture of oligosaccharides of the orthosomycin group, that are produced by Streptomyces viridochromogenes.unknown-


Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.

Food additives – Flavour enhancers

Flavour enhancers codes: 600–699; Subranges: 620–629 glutamates & guanylates, 630–639 inosinates, 640–649 others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as flavour enhancers.

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E620Glutamic acidGlutamic acid is a natural essential amino acid that is present in all complete proteins. It is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Glutamic acid has the ability to make bland and tasteless foods taste wonderful. It is very cheap and easy to produce, and is present in a wide variety of foods. Commercially it is prepared by bacterial fermentation of molasses and also prepared from vegetable protein. Glutamates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. The products do not contain gluten. avoid-
E621Monosodium glutamate, MSGMonosodium glutamate is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Glutamates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. Some people are sensitive to large amounts of MSG. Reactions include headache, nausea, weakness, and burning sensation in the back of neck and forearms, wheezing, changes in heart rate, and difficulty breathing. The products do not contain gluten.avoid-
E622Monopotassium glutamateMonopotassium glutamate is the potassium acid salt of glutamic acid. It is a non-sodium MSG (E621) alternative. Glutamates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. The products do not contain gluten. avoid-
E623Calcium diglutamateCalcium diglutamate is the calcium acid salt of glutamic acid. Glutamates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. The products do not contain gluten. avoid-
E624Monoammonium glutamateMonoammonium glutamate is the ammonium acid salt of glutamic acid. Glutamates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. The products do not contain gluten.avoid-
E625Magnesium diglutamateMagnesium diglutamate is the magnesium acid salt of glutamic acid. Glutamates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. The products do not contain gluten.avoid-
E626Guanylic acidGuanylic acid also known as GMP is a nucleotide composed of guanine, ribose and one phosphate group formed during protein synthesis. It is an ester of phosphoric acid with the nucleoside guanosine. Commercially it is produced from dried fish, yeast extract, or dried seaweed. Guanylates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. Asthmatic people should avoid guanylic acid and guanylates. As guanylates are metabolised to purines, they should be avoided by people suffering from gout. They may thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians.avoid-
E627Disodium guanylate, Sodium guanylateDisodium guanylate is the disodium salt of guanylic acid. Guanylates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. Asthmatic people should avoid guanylic acid and guanylates. As guanylates are metabolised to purines, they should be avoided by people suffering from gout. They may thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians.avoid-
E628Dipotassium guanylateDipotassium guanylate is the potassium salt of guanylic acid. Guanylates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. Asthmatic people should avoid guanylic acid and guanylates. As guanylates are metabolised to purines, they should be avoided by people suffering from gout. They may thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians.avoid-
E629Calcium guanylateCalcium guanylate is the calcium salt of guanylic acid. Guanylates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. Asthmatic people should avoid guanylic acid and guanylates. As guanylates are metabolised to purines, they should be avoided by people suffering from gout. They may thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians.avoid-
E630Inosinic acid, IMP, hypoxanthine ribotideInosinic acid or otherwise known as IMP is a nucleoside that is important in metabolism. It is found naturally in many animals but commercially is prepared by yeast or bacterial fermentation using Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium and Corynebacterium of molasses, starch, sugar beets, and sugar cane. It can also be prepared from meat or fish (sardines). Used in antacid, analgesics, cough syrups, pills, protein drinks, dietary supplements, and as a sweetener in bakery products. Inosinates may not be used in products intended for children under 12 weeks. Asthmatic people should avoid inosinates. As inosinates are metabolised to purines, they should be avoided by people suffering from gout. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus.unknown-
E631Disodium inosinateDisodium inosinate is the disodium salt of inosinic acid. See E630 for similar details.unknown-
E632Dipotassium inosinateDipotassium inosinate is the potassium salt of inosinic acid. See E630 for similar details.unknown-
E633Calcium inosinateCalcium inosinate is the calcium salt of inosinic acid. See E630 for similar details.unknown-
E634Calcium 5'-ribonucleotidesCalcium 5-Ribonecleotide is a compound that is produced by mixing calcium salts of guanylic acid (E626) and inosinic acid (E630). It produces an odourless, white crystal or powder, with a very characteristic taste, that is used as a flavour enhancer in foods. See E626 and E630 for similar details.unknown-
E635Disodium 5'-ribonucleotidesDisodium 5-Ribonecleotide is a compound that is produced by mixing sodium salts of guanylic acid (E627) and disodium inosinate (E631). See E627 and E631 for similar details.unknown-
E636MaltolMaltol is a naturally occurring organic compound that is found in the bark of larch trees, pine needles, and roasted malt. Commercially it is produced by the extraction of larch trees, or by the roasting of malt, or produced by heating lactose and maltose. It is used as a flavour enhancer in food, especially in breads and cakes. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 1 mg/kg body weight. Sometimes lactose (from cow's milk) is used. It should thus be avoided by vegans. It does not contain lactose and can be used by lactose-intolerant people. unknown-
E637Ethyl maltolEthyl maltol is derived from maltol (E636) by replacing one metholy group with an ethyl group. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Sometimes lactose (from cow's milk) is used. It should thus be avoided by vegans. It does not contain lactose and can be used by lactose-intolerant people.unknown-
E640Glycine and its sodium saltGlycine is an amino acid. Commercially it can be manufactured two different ways: by treating chloroacetic acid with ammonia, or by the Strecker amino acid synthesis. It is used as a sweetener, flavour enhancer, and a buffering agent in food. Glycine is produced mainly from gelatin, which is derived from animal bones. They are thus not suitable for vegans and vegetarians, and in most cases not suitable for Jews, Muslims and Hindus.unknown-
E641LeucineLeucine is an essential amino acid, a building block for protein. It is used as a dietary supplement as it has been found to slow muscle tissue degradation by increasing the synthesis of muscle protein. It is also used as a flavour enhancer. Used in bodybuilding supplements, and medications. unknown-
E642Lysine hydrochlorideLysine hydrochloride is an essential amino acid that the body requires for growth and tissue repair. It comes in powdered form, and is used as a flavour enhancer in foods, and as a nutritional amino acid supplement. It is used as a flavour enhancer in foods, and as a nutritional amino acid supplement.unknown-
E650Zinc acetateZinc acetate is a chemical compound that is produced by the action of acetic acid on zinc carbonate. It produces a colourless solid that is used in dietary supplements. It is also used in lozenges to help treat the common cold. It can also be used to help treat those with zinc deficiencies. It is used in chewing gum, lozenges, breath fresheners, dietary supplements, and body building formulas. unknown-


Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.

Food additives – Acidity regulators, Anti-caking agents

pH regulators & anti-caking agents codes: 500–599; Subranges: 500–509 mineral acids & bases, 510–519 chlorides & sulphates, 520–529 sulphates & hydroxides, 530–549 alkali metal compounds,550–559 silicates, 570–579 stearates & gluconates, 580–599 others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as acidity regulators, anti-caking agents:

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E500Sodium carbonates: Sodium carbonate, Sodium bicarbonate (Sodium hydrogen carbonate), Sodium sesquicarbonateSodium carbonate is the sodium salt of carbonic acid. It is more commonly known as washing soda or soda ash. It is synthetically produced in large quantities from table salt, and produces a white powder that is used as an acidity regulator, anti-caking agent, raising agent, and a stabiliser in foods. Used in beer making, soft drinks, carbonated beverages, sherbet lollies and confectionary, noodles, baked goods, and also used as an additive in baking.safe-
E501Potassium carbonates: Potassium carbonate, Potassium bicarbonate (Potassium hydrogen carbonate)Potassium carbonate is produced synthetically for commercial use by the electrolysis of potassium chloride. It is used as an acidity regulator, and buffering agent in food. Used in bakery goods, soft drinks, cocoa, confectionary, custard powder, mead and wine.safe-
E503Ammonium carbonates: Ammonium carbonate, Ammonium bicarbonate (Ammonium hydrogen carbonate)Ammonium carbonate commonly known as baker’s ammonia, is produced commercially by heating a mixture of ammonium chloride and chalk. It is used as a raising agent, and acidity regulator in food. Used in cheese, jelly, and canned fruits and vegetables. Some gas formation in the stomach after ingestion. safe-
E504Magnesium carbonates: Magnesium carbonate, Magnesium bicarbonate, Magnesium hydrogen carbonateMagnesium carbonate is a naturally occurring mineral, but commercially it is prepared by mixing magnesium and carbonate ions under an atmosphere of carbon dioxide. Magnesium bicarbonate is prepared by exposing magnesium hydroxide to carbon dioxide under pressure. It is used as an acidity regulator, alkali, bleaching and anti-caking agent in foods. Used in flour products, breads, and bakery products. High concentrations act as a laxative. safe-
E505Ferrous carbonateFerrous carbonate is the precipitated result of the reaction of ferrous sulphate and sodium carbonate in an aqueous medium. This results in a tan brown to reddish brown powder that is used mainly to fortify foods containing iron, and as an acidity regulator in food. Used in iron-fortified foods, and in pharmaceutical preparations.safe-
E507Hydrochloric acidHydrochloric acid is synthetically prepared by adding gaseous hydrogen chloride to water. The resulting acid is highly corrosive and a strong mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid is found naturally in the stomach, also known as gastric acid. It has wide applications but is used as an acidity regulator in food. Used mainly for the malting of beer, gelatine manufacture, and cornflour. safe-
E508Potassium chloridePotassium chloride is a natural mineral salt composed of chlorine and potassium. Commercially it is usually extracted from salt water. It is usually used as a salt replacer in foods. It is also used as a gelling agent, acidity regulator, thickener, and stabiliser in foods. It is toxic in high doses. It can cause cardiac arrest and rapid death. In small doses it is considered safe and it is almost self-limiting, because most people perceive potassium chloride to taste extremely bitter.suspicious-
E509Calcium chlorideCalcium chloride is a common salt that is a crystalline solid at room temperature. It can be produced directly from limestone, although commercially it can be exacted from sea salt and rock salt. It is used as a sequestrant and firming agent in food, as an electrolyte in sports drinks, and used as a preservative for canned foods. Used in sausage, canned fish and shellfish, processed vegetables, processed meat, cheese, and baking powder.safe-
E510Ammonium chloride, ammonia solutionAmmonium chloride is a natural mineral salt that is the crystalline salt of ammonia. Commercially it is produced by reacting ammonia with hydrogen chloride. It is used as an acidity regulator and for flavour in foods, and can also be used as a nutrient for yeast in yeast-fermented products. Used in beer and low-salt, low-sodium products. suspicious-
E511Magnesium chlorideMagnesium chloride is a natural mineral salt that has been mined out of ancient seabeds. Commercially it is produced from sea water after the sodium chloride and the water have been removed. It is used as a firming agent, stabiliser, and colour retention agent in foods. Can act as a laxative. safe-
E512Stannous chlorideStannous chloride also known as Tin chloride is produced by dissolving tin in hydrochloric acid. It is used as a reducing agent, anti-oxidant, and colour retention agent in foods. Used in many foods such as soups, jellies, ice-creams, meringues, cream, milk, yoghurt, and laxatives. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight.suspicious-
E513Sulphuric acidSulphuric acid is a natural strong mineral acid. Commercially it is prepared by the oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the presence of water. It produces a clear, colourless, and odourless liquid that is used as an acidity regulator in food. Used mainly in beer.unknown-
E514Sodium sulphates: Sodium sulphate, Sodium hydrogen sulfatSodium sulphate is the sodium salt of sulphuric acid, which is a natural strong mineral acid. Commercially it is produced by the oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the presence of water. It is used as an anti-caking agent in foods. Used in bakery products, and confectionary. suspicious-
E515Potassium Sulphates: Potassium Sulphate, Potassium hydrogen sulfatPotassium sulphate is a mineral salt that is rare in nature, and is commercially produced by mixing potassium chloride with sulphuric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator in brewing, and as an anti-caking agent, and salt replacer. Used in beer, food supplements, canned vegetables, and infant formula. It is also used in bath salts and pharmaceuticals.suspicious-
E516Calcium sulphateCalcium sulphate is a white solid and very soluble compound that is naturally found in gypsum and anhydrite, which may be extracted by deep mining, or open-cast quarrying. It is used as a stabiliser, metal binding agent, bleaching agent and a nutrient for yeast in bread, and as a safe calcium supplement. Naturally found in meat, cereals, and vegetables and is used primarily in agriculture and livestock feed. It can also be used in infant formula as a mineral supplement. suspicious-
E517Ammonium sulphateAmmonium sulphate is an inorganic chemical compound that is commercially prepared by reacting ammonia with sulphuric acid. This results in fine, white, hygroscopic granules, or crystals, that are soluble in water. Ammonium sulphate is used as a stabiliser, buffer, and bread enhancer in foods. Found in foods such as pickled vegetables, beer, and proteins. unknown-
E518Magnesium sulphate, Epsom saltsMagnesium sulphate is a chemical compound which is a white crystalline solid that is prepared from magnesium salts and sulphuric acid. It is more commonly known as Epsom salts. This is mainly used for its medicinal purposes and can also be used as nutritional supplement. In food it is used to enhance the firmness of canned vegetables. Found in foods such as flour, cheese, and confectionary. It is a strong laxative.unknown-
E519Copper(II) sulphateCopper sulfate is a mineral salt that is naturally found in meat, cereals, and vegetables. Commercially it is prepared by reacting various copper (II) compounds with sulphuric acid. This produces a series of different compounds ranging from blue crystalline solids to gray-white powders. Copper sulphate is mainly used in agriculture, in livestock feeds, and to stimulate growth in pigs. It can also be used as a mineral supplement in infant formulas. Found in foods such as baking powder. unknown-
E520Aluminium sulphateAluminium sulphate is produced by dissolving aluminum hydroxide in sulphuric acid, to produce a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water. It is mainly used to purify drinking water, and in waste water treatment plants. It is also used as a firming agent and acidity regulator in some foods. Found in foods such as pickled vegetables and seaweeds, flour and starches, egg-based desserts, and composite foods. Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations. However with use of E520 the concentrations are too low. unknown-
E521Aluminium sodium sulphateAluminium sodium sulphate is prepared from natural aluminium sulphate, which is produced by dissolving aluminium hydroxide in sulphuric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator, and bleaching agent in foods. Used in cocoa products, confectionary (in the preparation of caramel), sour cream, edible fats and oils, jams and jellies, tinned vegetables, to enhance the industrial peeling of fruits, black olives, and in pretzel glazes. Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations. However with use of E520 the concentrations are too low. unknown-
E522Aluminium potassium sulphateAluminium potassium sulphate is prepared by reacting potassium sulphate with aluminium sulfate, and then dissolving aluminum hydroxide in sulphuric acid. It is used as a stabiliser, and as an acidity regulator in food. Found in foods such as baking powder. Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations. However with use of E520 the concentrations are too low.unknown-
E523Aluminium ammonium sulphateAluminium ammonium sulphate is prepared by reacting ammonium sulphate with aluminium sulphate, which is produced by dissolving aluminum hydroxide in sulphuric acid. It is used as a stabiliser, firming agent, and raising agent in foods. Found in foods such as pickled vegetables and seaweeds, flour and starches, egg-based desserts, and composite foods. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 0,6 mg/kg body weight. ium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations. However with use of E520 the concentrations are too low.unknown-
E524Sodium hydroxideSodium hydroxide also known as caustic soda is a white solid power that is produced commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. Sodium hydroxide is a strong base/alkali that has many applications within the food industry as an acidity regulator. Used in cocoa products, confectionary (in the preparation of caramel), sour cream, edible fats and oils, jams and jellies, tinned vegetables, to enhance the industrial peeling of fruits, black olives, and in pretzel glazes.unknown-
E525Potassium hydroxidePotassium hydroxide is a white, deliquescent solid that is produced commercially by the electrolysis of potassium chloride using the chloralkali process. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali, and is used as an acidity regulator in foods. Used in cheese, and canned goods to stabilise colour in vegetables.unknown-
E526Calcium hydroxideCalcium hydroxide also known as pickling lime is a soft white powder or a colourless liquid that is produced commercially by mixing calcium oxide with water. It can also be precipitated by mixing calcium chloride with sodium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide is a strong alkali that is used as an acidity regulator, and firming agent in foods. Used in bakery products, and cocoa products.suspicious-
E527Ammonium hydroxideAmmonium hydroxide also known as ammonia water, is a solution of ammonia in water. It is a strong alkali that is used as an acidity regulator in food.unknown-
E528Magnesium hydroxideMagnesium hydroxide also known as Milk of Magnesia, is an inorganic compound that is commercially precipitated by the metathesis reaction between magnesium salts and sodium, potassium, or ammonium hydroxide. It produces a white solid, odourless powder that is practically insoluble. It is used as an antacid, and acidity regulator in food. Laxative in high concentration. unknown-
E529Calcium oxideCalcium oxide also known as burnt lime, is a non-metallic chemical compound. It is produced by heating limestone, coral, sea shell or chalk which all contain calcium carbonate, to drive off the carbon dioxide leaving the calcium oxide residue behind. It is used as an acidity regulator in some foods, as a stabiliser in bakery products, and as a nutrient for yeast. Used in many products including pork pies, tinned meats, cereal based baby foods, dairy based drinks, fat spreads, processed fruit, food supplements, beer and malt beverages, mead, and dietetic formulas.safe-
E530Magnesium oxideMagnesium oxide better known as magnesia, occurs naturally in metamorphic rocks. It is produced by burning a magnesium ribbon which then oxidises in a bright white light, leaving behind a white powder. It is used as an acidity regulator, anti-caking agent, and as a vitamin supplement in foods. Used in bakery products, frozen dairy products, canned peas, butter, and cocoa products. It is also used in antacids and vitamin supplements. Magnesium acts as a laxative in high concentrations.safe-
E535Sodium ferrocyanide, Yellow prussiate of soda, YPSSodium ferrocyanide, commonly known as yellow prussiate of soda is a chemical compound that is produced when hydrogen ferrocyanide and sodium hydroxide are combined. It is used as an anti-caking agent in food, and is used as a colour when combined with iron to produce Prussian blue. Used in salt as an anti-caking agent. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. Use is very limited, partly due to the strong yellow colour.unknown-
E536Potassium ferrocyanide, Yellow prussiate of potashPotassium ferrocyanide, commonly known as yellow prussiate of potash is a chemical compound that is produced when hydrogen ferrocyanide and potassium hydroxide are combined. It is used as an anti-caking agent in food, and as a colour when combined with iron to produce Prussian blue. Used in wine to remove copper from grapes, and as an anti-caking agent in salt. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 25 mg/kg body weight.suspicious-
E537Ferrous hexacyanomanganateFerrous hexacyanomanganate is prepared by adding hydrogen manganocyanide and iron hydroxide together. As a food additive it is used as an anti-caking agent. Used in licorice powder (salmiak).suspicious-
E538Calcium ferrocyanide, Yellow prussiate of limeCalcium ferrocyanide, commonly known as yellow prussiate of lime is a chemical compound that is produced when hydrogen ferrocyanide and calcium hydroxide are combined. It is used as an anti-caking agent in food, and as a low-sodium salt substitute. Used as a low-sodium salt substitute. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 25 mg/kg body weight.suspicious-
E539Sodium thiosulphateSodium thiosulfate is a chemical compound that is commercially produced from liquid waste products of sodium sulphide. It can also be prepared by heating an aqueous solution of sodium sulphite with sulfur. It is used as an anti-browning agent, anti-oxidant, and sequestrant in foods. Found in potatoes, and potato products. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 0,7 mg/kg body weight. Thiosulphate is converted into sulphite and has similar side effects, see E221.unknown-
E540Dicalcium diphosphatePolyphosphates are the salts of sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium with phosphates. These are all produced synthetically from their respective carbonates and phosphoric acid, to produce a mineral salt that is used as a stabiliser, acidity regulator, sequestrant, and emulsifier in foods. It is also used to help retain water during processing and storage.Used in many products such as soy milk, pate and processed meats, beer, ice-cream, milk shakes, sweetened condensed milk, sauces and desserts. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism.unknown-
E541Sodium aluminium phosphate: Acidic, BasicSynthetically produced from aluminium, phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide. Acceptable daily intake (ADI: Up to 0,6 mg/kg body weight. Aluminium impairs the calcium and phosphorous uptake by the body.unknown-
E542Bone phosphate, Essentiale Calcium Phosphate, TribasicBone phosphate is a natural compound that is produced by using the residue of bones that have been treated with a caustic solution, and then with hydrochloric acid. It is then precipitated with lime, and dried into a powder that is used as an anti-caking agent, emulsifier, moisture retaining agent, and a sequestrant in foods. It is also used as a source of phosphorous in vitamin supplements. Used in dried coffee whiteners, cane sugar, and as a filler in tablets. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E543Calcium sodium polyphosphateSodium calcium polyphosphate is a heterogeneous mixture of calcium and sodium salts of polyphosphoric acids. It is a colourless, odourless crystalline powder that is insoluble in water but very soluble in an acid medium. It is used as an emulsifier, raising agent, moisture-retaining agent, sequestrant, and stabiliser in food. Used in many foods such as soy milk, pate and processed meats, beer, ice-cream, milk shakes, sweetened condensed milk, sauces and desserts. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. Polyphosphates may inhibit digestive enzymes in high concentrations.unknown-
E544Calcium polyphosphateCalcium polyphosphate is a heterogeneous mixture of calcium salts of polyphosphoric acids. It is an colourless, odourless crystalline powder that is insoluble in water but very soluble in an acid medium. It is used as an emulsifier, moisture-retaining agent, sequestrant, and texturiser in food. Used in soy milk, pate and processed meats, beer, ice-cream, milk shakes, sweetened condensed milk, sauces and desserts. It can be used in diabetic products. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. Polyphosphates may inhibit digestive enzymes in high concentrations.unknown-
E545Ammonium polyphosphateAmmonium polyphosphate is an inorganic salt of polyphosphoric acid and ammonia. It is a white crystalline powder that is insoluble in water but very soluble in an acid medium. It is used as an emulsifier, anti-caking agent, and sequestrant in food. Used in essential oils, sweeteners, pudding mixes, and flavour bases. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. Polyphosphates may inhibit digestive enzymes in high concentrations.unknown-
E546Magnesium pyrophosphateMagnesium pyrophosphate is produced when sodium phosphate is added to magnesium sulphate in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride, which is then heated to over 100 degrees. The residue that is left behind is magnesium pyrophosphate. It is used as an anti-caking agent in food. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 70 mg/kg bodyweight. unknown-
E550Sodium Silicates: Sodium silicate, Sodium metasilicateSodium silicate is an inorganic compound that is produced by combining various ratios of sand (silicon dioxide, quartz) with sodium carbonate (soda ash) at very high temperatures. This produces a colourless, transparent, glass-like substance that can be either in liquid or powdered form. It is soluble in water, and is used as an anti-caking agent, and buffer in food. Used in preserving eggs, vanilla powder, and canned peaches.unknown-
E551Silicon dioxide, SilicaSilicon dioxide more commonly known as silica, is an oxide of silicon (sand or quartz) and is the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. It is used as an anti-caking agent, anti-foaming agent, as well as a filtering agent to remove protein and yeast in beer. It is also used as a vitamin supplement (for hair, nails and connective tissue and helps in reducing inflammation). Used in beer, dried milk, confectionary, powdered sugars, processed cheese, fat spreads, and salt.unknown-
E552Calcium silicateCalcium silicate is a chemical compound that is produced by reacting calcium oxide and silica in various ratios. It forms a white or cream powder that can absorb high levels of water, and is used as an anti-caking agent and as an antacid. Used in dried whey and whey products, chewing gum, powdered sugars, and salt. It is also used as an antacid.unknown-
E553aMagnesium silicate, Magnesium trisilicateProduced from magnesium sulphate and sodium silicate. Used in many dry products. Main use is in cosmetics.unknown-
E553bTalcTalc is a synthetic compound that is produced by hydrating silicate salts of magnesium, and is also known as Magnesium silicate. It produces a white, grey, green, blue or silver powder with a clear dusty luster. It is one of the earth’s softest minerals, and is insoluble in water. It is used as an anti-caking agent in food. Used in icing sugar, chocolate, confectionary, noodles, and in medications.unknown-
E554Sodium aluminium silicate, Aluminosilicic acid, Aluminum sodium silicateSodium aluminosilicate is a natural compound that contains silicon, sodium, aluminium, and oxygen. It may also contain water. It is usually white, or colourless, or can be shades of blue, yellow, orange, and brown crystals that are slightly opaque. This compound is widely used as an anti-caking agent in food. It can be produced in a wide range of compositions to suit many different applications. Used in salt, dried milk substitutes, sugar products, egg mixes, and flours.unknown-
E555Potassium aluminium silicatePotassium aluminium silicate (muscovite mica or microcline) is a naturally occurring mineral found in many rock types. It is formed by aluminium silicate sheets being weakly bonded together by layers of potassium ions. It is used as an anti-caking agent in food to ensure that dry powders mix properly together to avoid clumping and sticking together. Used in dry powdered mixes. It is no longer approved for use in cheese products which includes unripened, ripened, semi-hard, cheese powders and soft cheeses, nor in powdered milk products.unknown-
E556Calcium aluminosilicateCalcium aluminosilicate is a naturally occurring silicate clay. In it’s dehydrated form it is a fine, white, free-flowing powder that is used as an anti-caking agent in food. Used in whole, broken or flaked grain, sugars and syrups, salt, herbs, spices and seasonings, and canned or bottled fruit juice wines.suspicious-
E557Zinc silicateZinc silicate can be produced directly from willemite, or can be synthetically produced from quartz and zinc oxide. It is used as an anti-caking agent in food, although rarely used, and its use is restricted. Used in dry products, but very rarely used.suspicious-
E558BentoniteBentonite an impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite, that is prepared from the alteration of volcanic ash. The deposits are mined, the solid bentonite is extracted, crushed, and activated with soda ash. It is used as an anti-caking agent, and emulisifier in food, and has the ability to remove impurities from edible oils and fats. Used in sugar, honey, beer, wine, and mineral water.unknown-
E559Aluminium silicate, KaolinAluminium silicate or commonly known as Kaolin, is a clay mineral that is mined, treated for impurities, and then dried to produce an ordourless, soft, whitish powder. It is used as an anti-caking agent in foods. Used in instant coffee, milk powder and aromas, and is also used as an antacid.unknown-
E560Potassium silicatePotassium silicate is a naturally occurring compound that is the potassium salt of silicic acid. It is water soluble and is used in foods as an anti-caking agent.unknown-
E561VermiculiteVermiculite is a natural mineral that expands with the application of heat. The expansion process is called exfoliation and it is routinely accomplished in purpose-designed commercial furnaces. Vermiculite is formed by weathering or hydrothermal alteration of biotite or phlogopite. Vermiculite ore, particularly those mined from the U.S., usually is contaminated with asbestos.unknown-
E562SepioliteSepiolite is a clay mineral, a complex magnesium silicate. Owing to its fibrous mineral nature, sepiolite veins may contain the hazardous material, asbestos; even where asbestos is not present, sepiolite is often mistaken for it. Careful analytical techniques may be required to distinguish the two.unknown-
E563Sepiolitic claySepiolitic clay is hydrated magnesium silicate of sedimentary origin, containing at least 40% sepiolite and 25% illite. It is a naturally mined mineral. It is used as a binder, anticaking agent and coagulant.unknown-
E565LignosulphonatesLignosulphonates are produced from wood. They are used as binders, anticaking agents and coagulants.unknown-
E566Natrolite-phonoliteNatrolite-phonolite is a natural mixture of aluminum silicates, alkalines and alkaline-earth and aluminum hydrosilicates, natrolite (43% - 46,5%) and feldspar. It is used as a binder, anticaking agent and coagulant.unknown-
E570Stearic acidStearic acid is a natural saturated fatty acid. It is commercially prepared by treating animal fat with water at high temperature and pressure. It can also be obtained by the hydrogenation of some unsaturated vegetable oils. It is used in food as an anti-caking agent, foaming and glazing agent, and a plasticizer in chewing gum.unknown-
E571Ammonium stearateAmmonium stearate is the ammonium salt of stearic acid.unknown-
E572Magnesium stearate, calcium stearateMagnesium stearate and calcium stearate are the magnesium and calcium salts of stearic acid. It produces a white substance at room temperature that is insoluble in water. It is used as a diluent in medications. In foods, it is used as an anti-caking agent, emulsifier, stabiliser, and releasing agent. Used in capsules and tablets, baby formula, bakery products, artificial sweeteners, confectionary, and baby powders.unknown-
E573Aluminium stearate Aluminum stearate is the aluminum salt of stearic acid. Stearic acid and stearates are typically derived from plant material.unknown-
E574Gluconic acidGluconic acid occurs naturally in fruit, honey and wine. It is produced through bacterial fermentation of a carbohydrate source. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 50 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E575Glucono-delta-lactoneGlucono-delta-lactone is a natural ester of gluconic acid, which is formed by the fermentation of glucose. This process is done by evaporation, and produces a white, odourless, crystalline powder that is used in foods as an acidity regulator, sequestrant, and leavening agent. It can also be used to add a tangy tasted to foods, and as an artificial sweetener base.unknown-
E576Sodium gluconateSodium gluconate is the sodium salt of gluconic acid. Sodium gluconate is used as a sequestrant. It is also used as nutrient for yeast. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 50 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E577Potassium gluconatePotassium gluconate is the potassium salt of gluconic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound that is found in fruit, honey, tea and wine. It can also be produced by the fermentation of glucose with certain moulds, to produce a colourless or white to tan crystalline powder that is very soluble in water. It is used as an anti-oxidant, sequestrant, stabiliser, and mineral supplement in food. Used as an iron supplement in foods and infant formulas. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 50 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E578Calcium gluconateCalcium gluconate is the calcium salt of gluconic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound that is found in fruit, honey, tea and wine. It can also be produced by the fermentation of glucose with certain moulds, to produce colourless crystals that are very soluble in water. It is used as a firming agent, buffer, sequestrant, acidity regulator, artificial sweetener base, and as a mineral supplement in food. Used in chewing gum, lozenges, breath fresheners, dietary supplements, and body building formulas. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 50 mg/kg body weight.safe-
E579Ferrous gluconateFerrous gluconate is the iron salt of gluconic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound that is found in fruit, honey, tea, and wine. It can also be produced by the fermentation of glucose with certain moulds, to produce black crystals that are very soluble in water. It is used as a colour, and iron supplement in foods. Used in dietary supplements as a source of iron, and for colouring olives. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 0,8 mg/kg body weight.suspicious-
E580Magnesium gluconateMagnesium gluconate is the magnesium salt of gluconic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound that is found in fruit, honey, tea, and wine. It can also be produced by the fermentation of glucose with certain moulds. It is used as an acidity regulator, firming agent, yeast nutrient, and a mineral supplement in food.In flour, bread and bakery products, and iodised table salt. It is also an ingredient in baby formula milk.safe-
E585Ferrous lactate, Iron dilactateFerrous lacate is the iron salt of lactic acid, which is a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and molasses. It is used as an acidity regulator, colour retention agent, and to fortify foods containing iron. Acceptable daily intake (ADI): Up to 0,8 mg/kg body weight. Although the name refers to milk, it is not made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance. suspicious-
E586Hexylresorcinol 4Hexylresorcinol is a chemical compound with anaesthetic, antiseptic and antihelmintic properties. It is used as an anthelmintic and antiseptic agent for mouthwashes and skin wound cleansers and anti-browning agent in foods. It exhibits some estrogenic activity, I.e. resembles action of the female sex hormone estrogen.suspicious-
E598Synthetic calcium aluminatesSynthetic calcium aluminates are synthesised by burning high grade crude aluminous bauxite and limestone in an arc-furnace kiln. Synthetic calcium aluminates are currently only used for animal feed, and there are no listed uses for human food consumption.unknown-
E599PerlitePerlite is a naturally occurring siliceous rock, that is mined and then ground into a course to fine white powder. It has the ability to expand four to twenty times its original volume. It is a sterile and inert compound that does not alter the colour or taste of the liquid it is added to. It is used for filtering liquid in the pharmaceutical, food, and beverage industries. Used in pharmaceuticals, many food and drink products.unknown-


Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.

Food additives – Thickeners, Stabilizers, Emulsifiers

Thickeners, stabilisers & emulsifiers codes: 400–499; Subranges: 400–409 alginates, 410–419 natural gums, 420–429 other natural agents, 430–439 polyoxyethene compounds, 440–449 natural emulsifiers, 450–459 phosphates, 460–469 cellulose compounds, 470–489 fatty acids & compounds, 490–499 others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers:

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E400Alginic acidAlginic acid is a natural polysaccharide which is extracted from different seaweeds of the Phaeophycease family. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E401Sodium alginate Sodium Alginate is the sodium salt of alginic acid. Used in bakeries, dairies, dressings, sauces, and in the production of processed meats. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E402Potassium alginatePotassium alginate is the potassium salt of alginic acid. Used in salad dressings, cream cheese, cottage cheese, ice cream, processed cheese, and icing. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E403Ammonium alginateAmmonium alginate is the ammonium salt of alginic acid. Used in custard mixes, yoghurt, jelly, flavoured milk, artificial sweetener base, canned icing, cheese, as well as being used in slimming aids and indigestion tablets. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E404Calcium alginateCalcium alginate is the calcium salt of alginic acid. Used in salad dressings, and sauces. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E405Propanediol 1,2 alginatePropylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid. Used in fillings, emulsified sauces, cereals, cheese spreads. desserts, nut coatings, dairy products, chewing gum and dietary food supplements. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. None known side effects in the concentrations used.safe-
E406AgarAgar is a gelatinous substance obtained from the cell walls of red algae, primarily from members of the Gelidiacae, Sphaerococcaceae and Rhodophyceae seaweed families. Commercially it may be prepared from Gelidium amansii. It can be used as a vegetarian gelatin substitute, a thickener for soups and jellies, and as a clarifying agent in brewing. None known side effects in the concentrations used. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.safe-
E407CarrageenanCarrageenan is a natural polysaccharide that has been extracted from red seaweeds, Chrondrus crispus, Gigartina stellata, Euchema spinosum, E. cottonii, as a gelatinous substance. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating. It is suspected to have effects on the immune system and to cause cancer.avoid-
E407aProcessed eucheuma seaweed Processed euchuma seaweed is a natural polysaccharide that has been extracted from the red seaweed Euchema spinosum and Euchema cottonii, as a gelatinous substance. Used in beverages, and butter. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.suspicious-
E408FurcellaranFurcellaran is a natural sulphated polysaccharide that is extracted from the seaweed Furcellaria Fastigiata as a gelatinous substance.It is added to food as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabiliser. It is very similar to carrageenan. Daily Intake: Up to 75 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.unknown-
E409Arabinogalactan Larch GumArabinogalactan is a natural polysaccharide extracted by water from Western larch wood. It is used as a thickener in foods. Used in chewable tablets, chewing gum, bakery products, confectionary, chocolates, sugar-free foods, sauces, frozen fish, and mustard.unknown-
E410Locust bean gum, Carob bean gumCarob gum is a galactomannan vegetable gum extracted from the seeds of the Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua. Used in low-fat foods, cookies and biscuits, baked goods, ice-cream, dried fruit, liqueurs and vodkas, soft drinks, confectionary, marshmallows, toothpastes, and many more. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.safe-
E411Oat gum Oat gum is a natural polysaccharide produced from oats that is used as a stabiliser, and thickener in foods. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.unknown-
E412Guar gum, guaranGuar gum is a natural polysaccharide produced from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba. It is used as an emulsifier as it is very soluble but does not gel unless calcium or borax is added. It's also used as a thickener, as it is eight times more thickening than cornstarch. Guar gum is also used as a stabiliser as it prevent settling of solid particles. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.suspicious-
E413TragacanthTragacanth is a natural polysaccharide produced from the dried sap of genus Astragalus, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, and A. tragacanthus. It is used as an emulsifier, thickener, and stabiliser in foods. Used in many products including liquid diets, low calorie breads, and bakery goods. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.suspicious-
E414Acacia gum, Gum arabicGum arabic is a natural polysaccharide which is produced from the dried gum of the stems and branches of the Acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. The gum is water-soluble and used as a thickener, glazing agent, emulsifier, and as a stabiliser. It is easily broken down by the digestive system and is completely edible. Used as nutrient supplements (amino acids, vitamins particularly B-complexes), as processing aids, and as surface-active agents. May cause weak allergic reaction in some individuals. May act as an irritant. high concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.avoid-
E415Xanthan gumXanthan gum is a natural polysaccharide that is produced by the process of fermenting glucose or sucrose with a micro-organism Xanthomonas Campestris. This is especially seen in ready-made salad dressings. Xanthan gum is very soluble in a wide range of temperatures and pH. Used in sauces. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating.safe-
E416Karaya gumGum Karaya is a natural polysaccharide obtained from the tree Sterculia Urens. It is used as a thickening agent, stabiliser, and emulsifier in foods. It can be used in conjunction with E410 to increase the shelf-life of baked goods. Used in bakery products, and puddings. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating. It has laxative properties. suspicious-
E417Tara gumTara gum is a natural polysaccharide (glactomannan) obtained from the tree Cesalpinia Spinosa. It is produced by separating and grinding the endosperm of the C. spinosa seeds. Used in ice-creams, soft drinks, and bakery and baked goods. Daily Intake: (temporary ADI was specified at 0,25 mg/kg body weight). High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating. It has laxative properties. suspicious-
E418Gellan gumGellan gum is a natural polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas Elodea, although commercially it is prepared by aerobic submerged fermentation of Sphingomonas Elodea. It is soluble in water, and is used as a stabiliser, emulsifier, and a thickener in foods. It can also be used in lower quantities to reach the same gel strength as agar. Used in ice-cream, and bakery products. High concentrations bring about flatulence and bloating. It has laxative properties.suspicious-
E419Gum ghattiGum Ghatti is a natural polysaccharide that is the amorphous, translucent exudate of the Anogeissus Latifolia tree of the Combretaceae family. The exudate comes out in a soft plastic form with the colour varying form white to amber, and then ground into a nearly odourless, and tasteless powder. It is not completely soluble in water, around 80-90%, and forms a colloidal dispersion in both hot and cold water. This makes it an excellent emulsifying agent with a pH of 4.8. Used in cakes.unknown-
E420Sorbitol, Sorbitol syrupSorbitol is a natural carbohydrate alcohol, also known as glucitol - a sugar alcohol, that is metabolised slowly in the body. It is present in many berries and fruits from the genus Sorbus, but is commercially produced from glucose (dextrose). It has about 60% of the sweetness of sucrose (sugar), with a clean sweet taste that imparts a cooling sensation with no aftertaste. It is an anti-browning agent, a humectant to retain moisture in baked goods, adds texture, and is an anti-crystallisation agent. It can also be used synergistically with other sweeteners and blends well with gelling agents, proteins, and vegetable oils. May cause bloating and flatulence. In intolerant persons it can act as a laxative. It is not allowed for infants younger than 1 year of age, as it may cause severe diarrhoea.suspicious-
E421MannitolMannitol is a natural carbohydrate alcohol that is present in conifer, mushrooms and seaweed. Originally it was extracted from the manna ash tree, but commercially it is produced by the hydrogenation of invert sugar (glucose and fructose), sucrose and monosaccharides. It is used as an anti-browning agent, a humectant to retain moisture in baked goods, to add texture, and is an anti-crystallisation agent. It can also be used synergistically with other sweeteners, and its cooling effect is often used to mask bitter tastes. Daily Intake: Up to 160 mg/kg body weight. May cause bloating and flatulence. Large amounts may have a laxative effect and even cause diarrhea.avoid-
E422Glycerol, GlycerinGlycerol is a natural carbohydrate alcohol, also known as glycerin or glycerine. It is produced synthetically from propylene, or by the bacterial fermentation of sugars. It is used as a thickening agent in liquids, as a filler and bulking agent for low-fat foods, as a humectant in baked goods, as an anti-crystallisation agent in icings and confectionary, and as a sugar substitute. Glycerol is absorbed and metabolised as glucose (by the body) into fats. suspicious-
E424Curdlan gumCurdlan gum is a natural polysaccharide that is produced commercially by the bacterial fermentation of the mutant strain of Alcaligenes faecalis. It is tasteless and produces retortable, freezable elastic gels in food. It is also used to improve the texture of processed food, and acts as a firming agent, gelling agent, thickener, and stabiliser. Used in chocolate products and cocoa.unknown-
E425Konjac: Konjac gum, Konjac glucomannaneKonjac is a natural, water-soluble polysaccharide that has a low kilojoule count, and is considered to be a fibre (glucomannan). It is a highly viscous solution that is almost tasteless, and is used as a gelling agent, and emulsifier in foods. Certain confectionary products (jelly type sweets) containing konjac pose a serious choking risk, particularly to infants, children and the elderly because konjac fruit jelly does not melt readily in the mouth.suspicious-
E426Soybean hemicelluloseSoybean hemicellulose is a cell wall polysaccharide that is extracted from soy fibre using dilute sodium hydroxide. Soy fibre can be added to many different foods, and is available in many forms tailored to specific requirements. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, and thickener in foods. Used only in soft drinks.unknown-
E427Cassia gumCassia gum is a food additive made from the endosperm of Senna obtusifolia (also called Cassia obtusifolia or Cassia tora). It is used as a thickener and gelling agent. Cassia gum is currently (mid-2009) being used mainly in pet food applications. There is, however, a strong push to obtain human food approval in the US and EU. Approval has already been obtained in France, Belgium and Austria for human food applications.unknown-
E429PeptonesPeptones are a variable mixture of polypeptides, oligopeptides, and amino acids that are produced by the partial hydrolysis of casein, animal tissue, soy protein isolate, gelatin, defatted fatty tissue, egg albumin, or lactalbumin (whey protein). Peptones are produced from these proteins using proteolytic enzymes or by acids. Used mainly in beverages.unknown-
E430Polyoxyethene (8) stearatePolyoxyethene 8 stearate is a synthetic compound produced from a mixture of mono- and diesters of edible stearic acid, with polyoxyethylene diols. It is used as an emulsifier, gelling agent, stabiliser, and thickener in foods. Used in cakes, cake mixes, fillings, icings, pastries, and toppings. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E431Polyoxyethene (40) stearatePolyoxyethene 40 stearate is a synthetic compound produced from a mixture of mono- and diesters of edible stearic acid, with polyoxyethylene diols. It is used as an emulsifier, gelling agent, stabiliser, and thickener in foods. Used in bakery and baked goods. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E432Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monolaurate, Polysorbate 20Polyeyethene 20 is a synthetic compound produced from ethylene oxide, sorbital and lauric acid. Generally it is used in combination with other emulsifiers to disperse flavours and colours, improve texture in bakery goods, and to make essential oils and vitamins soluble. In many products. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E433Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monooleate, Polysorbate 80Polysorbate 80 is a synthetic compound that is produced by the esterification of polyethoxylated sorbitan and oleic acid. It produces a very viscous, water-soluble yellow liquid, which is then added to foods as an emulsifier. Used in cupcake mixes, pie tops, instant pasta and sauces, muesli bars, ice-cream, and instant soups. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E434Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate, Polysorbate 40Polysorbate 40 is a synthetic compound that is produced from ethylene oxide, sorbitol and palmitic acid. It is used as an emulsifier, and thickener in foods. Used in spices, cereal, chewing gum, and canned fruit drinks. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E435Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan monostearate, Polysorbate 60Polysorbate 60 is a synthetic compound that is produced from ethylene oxide, sorbitol and stearic acid. It is used as an emulsifier, and thickener in foods. Used in soups, breads, biscuits and cakes, frozen desserts, sauces, cream, crisps, spreads, jams, chocolate, margarine, quick-setting deserts, and milk shakes. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E436Polyoxyethene (20) sorbitan tristearate, Polysorbate 65Polysorbate 65 is a synthetic compound, that is produced from ethylene oxide, sorbitol and stearic acid. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, and in aerosol sprays. Used in UHT milk, low-calorie cream, many pasturised products, and laxatives. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid this.unknown-
E440Pectins: Pectin, Amidated pectinPectin is a naturally occurring polysaccharide found in many ripe fruit especially in apples, blackberries, oranges, and citrus fruit. It is commercially produced and extracted from the pulp of apples and orange peels to form a white to light brown powder. The main use for pectin is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabiliser in food. It is thermo-irreversible, meaning when it is heated it will remain a liquid. Used rarely. It may cause intestinal problems when present in high concentrations. May cause bloating and flatulence.suspicious-
E441GelatineGelatin is a natural protein produced from the partial hydrolysis of collagen that is extracted from tissue, organs, bones, and some intestines of animals. This is no longer considered a food additive and is now considered a food. Can not be used by vegans and vegetarians. Use by religious groups, such as Muslims and Jews is restricted, due to the origin of the product. Unfortunately information on origin can only be obtained from the producer. Specific halal gelatin is made from cattle.suspicious-
E442Ammonium phosphatidesAmmonium phosphatides are a natural carbohydrate alcohol. It is commercially produced either 1) synthetically from propene, 2) by bacterial fermentation of sugars, or 3) by the mixture of glycerol and partial hardened rapeseed oil. It is used mainly as an emulsifier to allow the combination of fats, oils and water, and as a stabiliser to prevent separation. Used in many products including pasteurised products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods etc. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. The use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be completed excluded.suspicious-
E443Brominated vegetable oil, BVOBrominated vegetable oil is a vegetable oil that has its atoms bonded to the element bromine. This is done so the density of the vegetable oil is equal to that of the water used in drinks. It is used as an emulsifier to help preserve natural and artificial citrus flavours, and to stay suspended in the drinks. Used in many products including pasteurised products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods etc. In very large quantities can produce bromism (which results in somnolence, psychosis, seizures and delirium).avoid-
E444Sucrose acetate isobutyrateSucrose acetate isobutyrate is a natural high purity sucrose acetate that is produced by the esterification of natural sucrose. It is a tasteless light yellow, highly viscous liquid, used as a stabiliser, and emulsifier in drinks. It has the ability to change the density and cloudiness of soft drinks. Used in many products including pasteurised products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods etc.unknown-
E445Glycerol esters of wood rosinsGlycerol esters of wood rosin are produced by harvesting wood rosin from the stumps of the longleaf pine, Pinus Palustris. The wood rosin is extracted by solvent extraction, and refined to form an ester gum that is used as an emulsifiers in beverages. Used in many products including pasteurised products, ice-creams, cheeses, dairy products, batters, baked emulsions and spreads, breakfast cereals, and bakery goods etc.unknown-
E446SuccistearinSuccistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate) is produced by the reaction of succinic anhydride, propylene glycol, and fully hydrogenated vegetable oil. It is used as an emulsifier in or with shortenings and edible oils, to help improve the tenderness in baked goods and bakery items. Used in foods such as dairy-based drinks, processed cheese, fat spreads, processed fruits, confectionary, bakery products, processed meats, beer and wines. Not permitted in Australia.unknown-
E450Diphosphates: Dicalcium diphosphate, Sodium and potassium pyrophosphatesPolyphosphates are the salts of sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium with phosphates. These are all produced synthetically from their respective carbonates and phosphoric acid, to produce a mineral salt that is used as a stabiliser, acidity regulator, sequestrant, and emulsifier in foods. It is also used to help retain water during processing and storage. Used in many products such as soy milk, pate and processed meats, beer, ice-cream, milk shakes, sweetened condensed milk, sauces and desserts. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism. unknown-
E451Triphosphates: Sodium triphosphate, Pentapotassium triphosphateTrisphosphates are inorganic chemicals that are the sodium and potassium salts of phosphoric acid. These are prepared synthetically from their respective carbonates and phosphoric acid, to produce a mineral salt that is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, and buffer in foods. It is also used as a water-retaining agent during processing. Used in many products including soft drinks, whitener, low-fat and reduced fat foods, cream, cheeses, spreads, dairy based desserts (puddings, custards etc), confectionary, batters, etc. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism. unknown-
E452Polyphosphates: Sodium polyphosphates, Potassium polyphosphates, Sodium calcium polyphosphate, Calcium polyphosphates, Ammonium polyphosphatePolyphosphates are the salts of sodium, potassium, calcium, and ammonium with phosphate. These are all produced synthetically from their respective carbonates and phosphoric acid to produce a mineral salt that is used as a stabiliser, sequestrant, and emulsifier in food. It is also used to help retain water during processing and storage. Used in many products. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations of phosphates may disturb several metabolic processes as phosphate plays an important role in general metabolism. unknown-
E459Beta-cyclodextrinCyclodextrins are produced from starch by means of enzymatic conversion to produce a white crystalline powder. It also has the ability to turn liquid food into solid food, and to remove any bitter taste or odour. It is used as an anti-oxidant to prevent oxidation and spoilage, and as an emulsifier, and thickener. Used in many products.unknown-
E460Cellulose: Microcrystalline cellulose, Powdered celluloseCellulose is a natural polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and cotton. It produces a crystalline powder that is used as an anti-caking agent, emulsifier, thickener, and as a source of dietary fibre. Used in whipped cream, ice-cream, cakes, baked goods, dairy foods, dehydrated potatoes, hot-chocolate mix, and sponge puddings. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E461Methyl celluloseMethyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and cotton. It produces a hydrophilic powder that when dissolved, forms a clear viscous gel used as a thickener, and emulsifier in many foods. Used in many products including bakery products, whipped products and fats, dairy-based drinks, yoghurts, edible ices, batters, breakfast cereals etc. Also used to help produce stable foam in whipped products, better aeration in high fat recipes and other foods. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E462Ethyl celluloseEthyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood that is chemically ethylated. It produces a hydrophilic powder that is dissolved to form a clear viscous gel, which is used as a thickener, filler, anti-clumping agent, and emulsifier in many foods. Used to stabilise soups, dairy desserts, mayonnaise and margarine. It can also be found in chewing gum, coffee and tea beverages with added dairy ingredients, and as a protective coating on some fresh fruit. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.unknown-
E463Hydroxypropyl celluloseHydroxypropyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically propylated. It produces a hydrophilic powder that is dissolved to form a clear viscous gel, which is used as a thickener, filler, anti-clumping agent, and emulsifier in many foods. Used in chewing gum, cereals, heat treated meat, dairy based drinks, dairy based desserts, fruit based desserts, cocoa mixes, weight reduction formulae, and electrolyte drinks. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E464Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, HypromelloseHydroxy propyl methyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic visco-elastic polymer polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically modified. It produces a solid off-white powder, and when dissolved in water forms colloids which are then used as emulsifiers, thickeners, stabilisers, and as bulking agents in many food products. Used in milk powder for baby formula, imitation milk powders, icings, chewing gum, coffee whitener, bakery and pastry products, butter, and cake mixes. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E465Ethyl methyl celluloseMethyl ethyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polymer polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically modified. It produces a solid off-white powder and when dissolved in water forms colloids which are then used as thickeners, stabiliser, foaming agent, and emulsifiers in many food products. Especially used in cheaper chocolate as a cocoa butter substitute, used in toppings and cake mixes, icings, low-fat spreads, salad dressings, and chocolate lollies. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.suspicious-
E466Carboxymethyl cellulose, Sodium carboxy methyl celluloseCarboxymethylcellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically modified with chloroacetic acid. It produces a solid off-white powder and when dissolved in water forms colloids which are then used as thickeners, and emulsifiers in many food products. Used in bakery products, soft drinks, ice-cream, and processed meats. Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea. It also lowers slightly the blood cholesterol level. suspicious-
E467Ethulose, Ethyl hydroxyethyl celluloseEthyl hydroxyethyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide with its primary component being the cell walls of green plants and algae. Commercially it can be prepared from wood and chemically modified by treatment with alkali, ethylene oxide, and ethyl chloride. It produces hygroscopic white or slightly yellowish or greyish, odourless granules, or fine powder. It is soluble in water to produce a clear to slightly cloudy, viscous, and colloidal solution. This solution is then used as a thickener, stabiliser, and emulsifier in many food products. It's used in brewing, as a salt substitute (as salt-free, sodium-free, and low-sodium products), gelling agent, and in reduced sodium breads.unknown-
E468Crosslinked sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, CroscarmelloseCross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is semi-synthetic polysaccharide that is produced by acidifying sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (E466) and heating it until the suspension is able to achieve cross-linking. Once this has occurred, the product is washed, dried, and is ready to be dissolved in water for use as a emulsifier in foods. Used in chewing gum, butter flavours, bakery products, dietary supplements, soft drinks, and artificial sweeteners.suspicious-
E469Enzymically hydrolysed carboxy methyl celluloseEnzymatically hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose is a semi-synthetic polysaccharide which is the sodium salt of a carboxymethyl ether of cellulose, hydrolyzed enzymatically with Trichoderma longibrachiatum under mild acidic conditions. Primarily it is used as a stabiliser with fat-extending properties. Used in dairy fat blends, chewing gum, vinegar, soups, jellies, beer and malt beverages, fermented fruit products, powdered milk, immitation chocolate, water based flavoured drinks (sports, energy or electrolyte drinks), pre-cooked pastas and more.suspicious-
E470aSodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acidsSodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids are the salts of natural fatty acids. They are produced mainly from plant origin, but can also be produced from the fats of animals. The acids are a mixture of stearic-, oleic-, palmitic- and myristinic acids, and are used as emulsifiers in foods. In bakery products, chewing gum, cocoa, chocolate, coffee, frostings and sweet sauces, hard and soft confectionary, to wax fruit and vegetables, and in water based flavoured drinks (including sport, energy, or electrolyte drinks). The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E470bMagnesium salts of fatty acidsMagnesium salts of fatty acids are the magnesium salts of natural fatty acids. They are produced mainly from plant origin, but can also be produced from the fats of animals. The acids are a mixture of stearic-, oleic-, palmitic- and myristinic acids. At room temperature it is a solid white substance, that is insoluble in water. It is used as an anti-caking agent, emulsifier, stabiliser, and thickener in foods. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E471Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, Glyceryl monostearate, Glyceryl distearateMono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) are produced from glyceryl and natural fatty acids, primarily from hydrogenated soya bean oil. This additive produces a white or cream coloured waxy solid which is used as an emulsifier in food. Used in products that need aeration such as toppings, cake mixes, icing, and coffee whitener. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472aAcetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsAcetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids, and acetic acid. This produces a product with varying consistencies from liquids to solids, white to pale yellow in colour, with an acetic acid odour. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472bLactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsLactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids, and lactic acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472cCitric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsCitric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids, and citric acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472dTartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsTartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids are produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids, and tartaric acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: 30 mg/kg bodyweight of tartaric acid. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E472eMono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsEsters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: 30 mg/kg bodyweight of tartaric acid. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472fMixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsEsters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid. It is primarily used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in food. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: 30 mg/kg bodyweight of tartaric acid. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E472gSuccinylated monoglyceridesA mixture of succinic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides produced by the succinylation of a product obtained by the glycerolysis of edible fats and oils, or by the direct esterification of glycerol with edible fat-forming fatty acids.unknown-
E473Sucrose esters of fatty acidsSucrose fatty acid esters are the mono, di and triesters of sucrose with edible fatty acids. The fatty acids are mainly derived from plants, but can also be animal fats. The product is usually a mixtures of different components that has been produced in the presence of some sort of solvent. Sucrose esters of fatty acids are used as emulsifiers, and stabilisers in foods. Used in bakery goods, dairy products, chewing gum, and soft drinks. Daily Intake: 16 mg/kg body weight. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E474SucroglyceridesSucroglycerides are a mixture of mono- and diesters of sucrose and fatty acids with mono-, di- and triglycerides from fat or oil. It is produced by reacting the sucrose and fat/oil together with or without the presence of a solvent. Usually the solvent is either dimethyl formamide, cyclohexane, isobutanol, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser and thickener in many foods. Used in bakery and baked goods, whipping agents, salad dressings, soups, and non-dairy creamers. ome sort of solvent. Sucrose esters of fatty acids are used as emulsifiers, and stabilisers in foods. Used in bakery goods, dairy products, chewing gum, and soft drinks. Daily Intake: 16 mg/kg body weight. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.suspicious-
E475Polyglycerol esters of fatty acidsPolyglycerol esters of fatty acids are natural products produced by the combination of polyglycerol, and natural fats derived from as soybean, rapeseed and maize. The fatty acid may also be obtained from animal fats. The end product is generally a mixture of different components, which are then used as emulsifiers is some foods. Used in bakery and baked goods, whipping agents, salad dressings, soups, and non-dairy creamers. Daily Intake: 25 mg/kg body weight. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E476Polyglycerol polyricinoleatePolyglycerol polyricinoleate is a natural product that is produced by the combination of polyglycerol, and castor oil (the oil from the Ricinus sp tree). The end product is generally a mixture of different components and is a yellowish, viscous liquid which is used as an emulsifier in some foods. As an emulsifier it improves fluidity of some liquids especially chocolate, and also enables coatings to be thinly spread, like spreads and salad dressings. See also E498. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: Up to 7.5 mg/kg body weight .safe-
E477Propanediol 1,2 esters of fatty acids, Propylene glycol esters of fatty acidsPropylene glycol esters of fatty acids are produced by the esterification or transesterification of propylene glycol and fatty acids. The fatty acids are normally derived from plant origin, but may also contain animal fats. This results in a white or cream coloured waxy solid, or white to yellow beads or flakes. These are used as emulsifiers, and stabilisers in foods. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for propylene glycol. High concentrations of propyleneglycol can cause eczema in sensitive persons. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.suspicious-
E478Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propane-1, 2-diol are made from the reaction of propylene glucol ester with lactic acid, propanediol, and natural fats. The fats are normally derived from plant origin, but fats of animal origin may also be used. The resulting product is used as an emulsifier and stabiliser in foods. Used in bakery products, and used as a conditioning agent for dehydrated potatoes. to yellow beads or flakes. These are used as emulsifiers, and stabilisers in foods. Used in bakery products. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight for propylene glycol. High concentrations of propyleneglycol can cause eczema in sensitive persons. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E479bThermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsEsterified soy oil is a thermally oxidized soy bean oil that is mixed with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (mainly from plant origin, but animal origin may also be used). This produces a pale yellow to light brown solid or waxy substance which is used as an emulsifier in foods. Used in bakery products, and used as a conditioning agent for dehydrated potatoes. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. The body metabolises the products as any other fat. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.suspicious-
E480Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinateDioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate is the dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinate. It is produced by the reaction of octane with maleic acid anhydride, followed by the reaction with sodium bisulphite. It produces a pure, white waxy solid that is very soluble in many liquids, and is used as an emulsifier in foods. Used as an emulsifier in or with egg whites, as a whipping agent in marshmallows, as a surfactant in dry beverage base and fruit juice drinks that have been acidulated with fumaric acid, and in crude vegetable oils and animal fats. Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. The product acts as a laxative.unknown-
E481Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylateSodium stearoyl lactate is an organic compound produced by combining stearic acid and lactic acid, with sodium hydroxide. It is used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in baked and bakery products, and in other foods. Used in bakery goods, breads, cakes mixes, whipped vegetable oil toppings, 

icings, frozen desserts, non-dairy milk and creamer etc. Daily Intake: Up to 20 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E482Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylateCalcium stearoyl lactate is an organic compound produced by combining stearic acid and lactic acid, with calcium hydroxide. The end result is a calcium salt which can be a white or slightly yellow powder, or a brittle solid with a characteristic odour, that is slightly soluble in hot water. It is used as an emulsifier, and stabiliser in bakery and baked goods, and in other foods. Used in the dehydration of grapes to produce raisins, crystallisation of sucrose, and as a synthetic flavouring substance in foods. Daily Intake: Up to 20 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E483Stearyl tartrateStearyl tartrate is produced by the esterification of tartaric acid with stearyl alcohol. The stearyl acid can be either plant or animal fat, though usually it is derived from vegetable oil. Stearyl tartrate is a cream coloured oily substance, that is mainly used as a dough strengthening agent, emulsifier, and stabiliser in foods. Used in margarine, baked goods, poultry, seasonings, alcoholic beverages, flavourings, wine, frostings, frozen dairy products, confectionary, chocolates, sweetened coconut, chewing gum, prepared food and vegetables, nut products, including artificial sweetener bases, and carrier liquid for food colours and flavourings (essences). Daily Intake: Up to 20 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E484Stearyl citrateStearyl citrate is produced by the esterification of citric acid with stearyl alcohol. The stearyl acid can be either plant or animal fat, though usually it is derived from vegetable oil. Stearyl citrate is a cream coloured oily substance, that is mainly used as an emulsifier, and sequestrant in food. Used as an emulsifier in cake mixes, imitation whipped cream, baked good, and puddings. Daily Intake: Up to 50 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.unknown-
E485Sodium stearoyl fumarateSodium stearoyl fumarate is an organic compound produced by combining stearic acid and fumaric acid with sodium hydroxide. The end result is a sodium salt that can be a white-slightly yellowish powder, or a brittle solid with a characteristic odour. This product is then used as an emulsifier, a flour treatment agent to strengthen dough, and as a conditioning agent in food. Used in compounded chocolate, and cake mixes.unknown-
E486Calcium stearoyl fumarateCalcium stearoyl fumarate is an organic compound produced by combining stearic acid and fumaric acid, with calcium hydroxide. The end result is a calcium salt which can be a white-slightly yellowish powder, or a brittle solid with a characteristic odour. This product is then used as an emulsifier, a flour treatment agent to strengthen dough, and as a conditioning agent in food. Application not known.unknown-
E487Sodium laurylsulphateSodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is an anionic surfactant (detergent) which is commercially synthesised from sulphuric acid as sulphuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt, or naturally from coconut and/or palm oil kernels. It occurs as white or cream coloured crystals, flakes, powder, or as a clear to yellowish thick liquid, with a slight odour of fatty substances. One end of the molecule is charged and is extremely soluble is water, while the other end is non-polar and is soluble in fats. It is this property that makes it suitable for use as an emulsifier, and thickener in foods. Used in ice-cream.unknown-
E488Ethoxylated Mono- and Di-GlyceridesEthoxylated mono- and di-glycerides (polyoxyethylene 20) and mono- and di- glycerides of fatty acids (polyglycerate 60) are anionic surfactants (detergents). A mono-glyceride is made of one fatty acid attached to glycerol, and a di-glyceride is made of two fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule. One end of the molecule (glycerol) is very soluble is water, while the other end (the fatty acid) is soluble in fats. It is this property that makes them suitable for use as emulsifiers in foods. They also act as crumb softeners, and dough strengtheners to allow for higher rising. Used in a range of products.unknown-
E489Methyl glucoside-coconut oil esterMethyl glucoside-coconut oil ester is an organic compound derived from coconut oil. It forms odourless, white crystals that are soluble in water. It is used as a processing aid in the crystallisation of sucrose and dextrose, as a surfactant (detergent) in molasses, and as an emulsifier, humectant, and synthetic flavouring substance in foods. Application not known.unknown-
E490Propanediol 1,2Propane 1,2-diol also known as propylene glycol, is an organic compound that is commercially produced by the hydration of propylene oxide, but can also be derived from glycerol. This results in a hygroscopic, odourless, colourless, viscous liquid that is tasteless, and is soluble in water and acetone. It is used as a humectant, solvent stabiliser for food colours and flavourings, has anti-microbial properties that inhibit the growth of fungi and bacteria, and as a carrier (for colours, emulsifiers, anti-oxidants and enzymes). See also E1520. Used in milk powders and milk replacer feeds. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations cause eczema.unknown-
E491Sorbitan monostearateSorbitan monostearate is produced from an ester of sorbitan and stearic acid. It produces a waxy-like cream powder that is very soluble in water. This product is then used as an emulsifier, defoaming and flavour dispersing agent in food. Used in toppings and cake mixes, chocolate, icings, low-fat spreads, salad dressings, chocolate lollies, and as a pan releasing agent and tin grease emulsion. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E492Sorbitan tristearateSorbitan tristearate is produced from an ester of sorbitan and stearic acid. It produces a waxy-like cream powder that is soluble in hot water, which is then used as an emulsifier, and wetting agent in food. Application not known. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. Mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.safe-
E493Sorbitan monolaurateSorbitan monolaurate is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol, and it mono- and dianhydrides with lauric acid - a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin. Used predominately in batters for frozen foods, puddings, desserts, custards, sauces, mayonnaise, salad dressings, pies and fillings, and instant beverages and dried foods. Other foods include Used in fermented milk, drinking yoghurt, flavoured milks, whipped creams, unripened cheese, whey products, fat-based desserts, semi-preserved or frozen fish and some seafood, coffee, coffee substitutes, tea, herbals teats, hot cereal, breakfast oats, pre-cooked pastas and noodles, starch based desserts (rice pudding, tapioca), dried or heat-coagulated eggs, confectionary, and many more. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E494Sorbitan monooleateSorbitan monooleate is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol, and its mono- and dianhydrides with oleic acid - a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin. Used in processed cheese, fat spreads, fat-based desserts, processed fruit, dried vegetables, canned or bottled vegetables, cooked or fried vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pastas, batters, bakery wares, processed meat and pultry, semi-preserved fish and fish products, egg-based desserts, seasonings and condiments, soups and broths. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E495Sorbitan monopalmitateSorbitan monopalmitate is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial esters of sorbitol and its mono- and dianhydrides with palmitic acid (a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin). Used in processed cheese, fat spreads, fat-based desserts, processed fruit, dried vegetables, canned or bottled vegetables, cooked or fried vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pastas, batters, bakery wares, processed meat and poultry, semi-preserved fish and fish products, egg-based desserts, seasonings and condiments, soups and broths. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E496Sorbitan trioleateSorbitan trioleat is a polysorbate that is derived from the mixture of partial tri-esters of sorbitol, and its mono- and dianhydrides with oleic acid - a normal fatty acid derived from plant or animal origin. Used in processed cheese, fat spreads, fat-based desserts, processed fruit, dried vegetables, canned or bottled vegetables, cooked or fried vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pastas, batters, bakery wares, processed meat and poultry, semi-preserved fish and fish products, egg-based desserts, seasonings and condiments, soups and broths.unknown-
E497Polyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymersPolyoxypropylene-polyoxyethylene polymers are non-ionic surfactants used as emulsifiers, thickeners, gelling agents, and stabilisers in foods.unknown-
E498Partial polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oilPolyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids of castor oil, is a natural product that is produced by the combination of polyglycerol, and castor oil (the oil from the Ricinus sp tree). As an emulsifier it improves fluidity of some liquids, especially chocolate and also enables coatings to be spread thinly, like spreads and salad dressings. See also E476.unknown-
E499Cassia gum 2Cassia gum is a natural polysaccharide that is produced from the endosperm of the Senna Obstusifolia plant, also known as Cassia tora. It is used as an emulsifier, and gelling agent in foods. It is hardly used. See also E427.unknown-


Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.

Food additives – Antioxidants, Acidity regulators

Antioxidants & acidity regulators codes: 300–399; Subranges: 300–305 ascorbates (vitamin C), 306–309 Tocopherol (vitamin E), 310–319 gallates & erythorbates, 320–329 lactates, 330–339 citrates & tartrates, 340–349 phosphates, 350–359 malates & adipates, 360–369 succinates & fumarates, 370–399 others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as antioxidants, acidity regulators:

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E300Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)Ascorbic acid is a sugar with anti-oxidant properties that occurs naturally in most fruits and vegetables, and is commonly known as vitamin C. Commercially it is synthesised by the bacterial fermentation of glucose, then followed by chemical oxidation. It is used as an anti-oxidant, preservative, and a source of vitamin C in foods.safe-
E301Sodium ascorbateSodium ascorbate is the sodium salt of ascorbic acid. Used in many products including pork pies, tinned meats, cereal based baby foods, dairy based drinks, fat spreads, processed fruit, food supplements, beer and malt beverages, mead, and dietetic formulas.safe-
E302Calcium ascorbateCalcium ascorbate is the calcium salt of ascorbic acid. Used in dairy based drinks, condensed milk, processed cheese, dairy bases desserts, fat spreads, canned or bottles vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pasta, batters, egg-based desserts, vinegars, and mustards.safe-
E303Potassium ascorbatePotassium ascorbate is the potassium salt of ascorbic acid. Used in many foods including dairy based drinks, condensed milk, processed cheese, dairy bases desserts, fat spreads, canned or bottles vegetables, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pasta, batters, egg-based desserts, vinegars, and mustards.unknown-
E304Ascorbyl palmitateAscorbyl palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid. There is the possibility that the palmitic acid used is obtained from animal fat. Daily intake: Up to 1.25 mg/kg body weight .suspicious-
E305Ascorbyl stearateAscorbyl stearate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and stearic acid.unknown-
E306TocopherolsTocopherol concentrate is a natural anti-oxidant extracted from soya bean oil, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize and green leaves. Commercially it is extracted by distillation in a vacuum from the same plants, and therefore may or may not be genetically modified. It is a fat-soluble anti-oxidant, also known as Vitamin E, and is used to prevent fats and oils from going rancid. Used in animal and vegetable oils, cheese and soups, milkshakes and baby formulas. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Vitamin E can cause several side effects in high concentrations. These are not associated with the use of tocopherols as additives, but as vitamin supplement. safe-
E307Alpha-tocopherolAlpha-tocopherol is an antioxidant commonly known as Vitamin E, and is synthetically produced commercially by chemical synthesis. It is a fat-soluble anti-oxidant, and is used to prevent animal oils from going rancid. See also 306/E306. Used in animal and vegetable oils, cheese and soups, vitamin supplement, and in vitamin E enriched foods. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Vitamin E can cause several side effects in high concentrations. These are not associated with the use of tocopherols as additives, but as vitamin supplement. safe-
E308Gamma-tocopherolGamma-tocopherol commonly known as Vitamin E is found naturally in walnuts, sesame seeds, corn, and many other plant seeds. For commercial purposes it is synthetically produced by chemical synthesis, and is a fat-soluble anti-oxidant used to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. See also 306/E306. Used in animal and vegetable oils, cheese and soups, salad dressings, and synthetically vitamin E enriched foods. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Vitamin E can cause several side effects in high concentrations. These are not associated with the use of tocopherols as additives, but as vitamin supplement. safe-
E309Delta-tocopherolDelta-tocopherol commonly known as vitamin E is found naturally in walnuts, sesame seeds, corn, and many other plant seeds. For commercial purposes it is synthetically produced by chemical synthesis, and is a fat-soluble, anti-oxidant used to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. It is also used to enrich foods with a synthetic source of Vitamin E. See also 306/E306. Used in animal and vegetable oils, cheese and soups, salad dressings, and synthetically vitamin E enriched foods. Daily Intake: Up to 2 mg/kg body weight. Vitamin E can cause several side effects in high concentrations. These are not associated with the use of tocopherols as additives, but as vitamin supplement. safe-
E310Propyl gallateAntioxidPropyl gallate is a synthetic anti-oxidant that is produced as an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and propanol. The result is a white to light brown-yellow crystalline powder which is odourless and has a slightly bitter taste. When dissolved it is used as an anti-oxidant and added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Used in oils, margarines, lard, snack foods, and salad dressing. Daily Intake: Up to 1.4 mg/kg body weight. It may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.avoid-
E311Octyl gallateOctyl gallate is a synthetic anti-oxidant that is produced as an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and octanol. The result is a white to light brown-yellow crystalline powder that is odourless, and has a slightly bitter taste. When dissolved it is used as an anti-oxidant, and added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Used in oils, margarines, lard, snack foods, and salad dressing. Daily Intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. It may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.avoid-
E312Dodecyl gallateDodecyl gallate,is a synthetic antioxidant that is produced as an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and dodecanol. The result is a white to light brown-yellow crystalline powder that is odourless, with a slightly bitter taste. When dissolved it is used as an anti-oxidant, and added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Used in oils, margarines, lard, snack foods, and salad dressings. Daily Intake: Up to 0.05 mg/kg body weight. There is the possibility that the lauryl alcohol used is obtained from animal fat. It may cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.avoid-
E313Ethyl gallateEthyl gallate is a synthetic anti-oxidant that is produced as an ester formed by the condensation of gallic acid and ethanol. The result is a white to light brown-yellow crystalline powder that is odourless, with a slightly bitter taste. When dissolved it is used as an antioxidant, and added to foods containing oils and fats to prevent oxidation. Used in oils, margarines, lard, and salad dressings. Daily Intake: Up to 3 mg/kg body weight. suspicious-
E314Guaiac resinGuaiac resin is a natural product that is extracted from the Guajacum officinale tree, and some other related tropical trees. The most common method of extraction is to boil the wood (chips or sawdust) in a solution of common salt, skimming off the substance which rises to the surface, then pulverizing it into a powder. The powder is light-grey in colour, but in the presence of light turns green. Guaiac resin is then dissolved into different solutions and added to food as an anti-oxidant. Used in cola, chewing gum, and sauces. Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. suspicious-
E315Erythorbic acidErythorbin acid is a synthetic isomer of ascorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. It is produced from sucrose, mainly derived from vegetable origins. Erythorbin acid produces a white to yellow crystalline solid which is very soluble in water, and is used as an anti-oxidant in foods. Used in dairy-based drinks, processed cheese, fat spreads, processed fruit, canned vegetables, breakfast cereals, sweeteners, vinegars, and mustards. None known in the concentrations used.safe-
E316Sodium erythorbateSodium erythorbate is the sodium salt of erythorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. It is produced from sugars derived from vegetable sources such as beets, and sugar cane. It produces a white, almost odourless crystalline powder that is freely soluble in water. Sodium erythorbate is used as an anti-oxidant in food to improve flavour stability, and the pink colouring of meat. Used mainly in meat products. None known in the concentrations used.safe-
E317Erythorbin acidErythorbin acid is a synthetic isomer of ascorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. It is produced from sucrose, mainly derived from vegetable origins. Erythorbin acid produces a white to yellow crystalline solid which is very soluble in water, and is used as an anti-oxidant in foods. Used in dairy-based drinks, processed cheese, fat spreads, processed fruit, canned vegetables, breakfast cereals, sweeteners, vinegars, and mustards. None known in the concentrations used.suspicious-
E318Sodium erythorbinSodium erythorbin is the sodium salt of erythorbic acid, commonly known as Vitamin C. It is prepared from sugars derived from vegetable sources such as beets and sugar cane, to produces a white, almost odourless crystalline powder, that is freely soluble in water. Sodium erythorbin is used in food as an anti-oxidant for it ability to improve flavour stability, and the pink colouring of meat. Used mainly in meat products. None known in the concentrations used.unknown-
E319Tert-Butylhydroquinone, TBHQTBHQ is a synthetically made aromatic organic compound that is derived when hydroquinone is substituted with a tert-butyl group. It produces a white, crystalline solid with a very characteristic odour, that is soluble in ethanol. TBHQ is highly effective as a preservative for vegetable and animal fats, as it doesn’t not change the colour or flavour of the product it is added to. Used in bakery goods, salad dressings, mustards, processed meat, soups, and vegetable oils and fats. Daily Intake: Up to 0.02 mg/kg body weight. May cause nausea, vomiting and delirium. A dose of 5g is considered fatal.suspicious-
E320Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHABHA is a synthetically made aromatic organic compound that is derived from the reaction of 4-methoxyphenol and isobutylene. It produces a white, crystalline solid with a very characteristic odour, that is soluble in ethanol. It is highly effective as an anti-oxidant and preservative as it stabilises free radicals to prevent further oxidation. It is also a synthetic analogue of vitamin E. Used in biscuits, cakes, fats and oils, cereals, pastry and pastry products, nuts, potato snack foods, sweets, and chewing gum. Generally used to keep fats and oil from becoming rancid, as well as preserve food odour, colour, and flavour. Daily Intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. May provoke an allergic reaction in some people and may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerance reactions. There are serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects and in large doses caused tumors in laboratory animals.avoid-
E321Butylated hydroxytoluene, BHTBHT is a synthetically made aromatic organic compound that is derived from the reaction of 4-methoxyphenol and isobutylene, catalysed by sulphuric acid. It produces a white, crystalline solid with a very characteristic odour, that is soluble in ethanol. It is highly effective as an anti-oxidant, and preservative as it stabilises free radicals to prevent further oxidation. It is also a synthetic analogue of vitamin E. Used in biscuits, cakes, fats and oils, cereals, pastry and pastry products. Daily Intake: Up to 0.3 mg/kg body weight. May provoke an allergic reaction in some people and may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerance reactions. avoid-
E322LecithinLecithin is any of a group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, and in egg yolk composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Commercially it is prepared by de-gumming the extracted oil of seeds (especially soybean), but there has been a move towards using the oil from sunflower seeds. It is a normal component of body cells and will be degraded and used by the body without side effects.safe-
E323AnoxomerAnoxomer is a synthetic, non-digestible, non-absorbable polymeric anti-oxidant developed for use in vegetable oils and animal fats. It is prepared by the condensation polymerisation of divinylbenzene, and a mixture of anti-oxidant monomers. Used in edible vegetable oils and animal fats in food processing, fish oils, chewing gum base, baked products (cookies), potato chips, and processed meats (ground turkey).unknown-
E324EthoxyquinEthoxyquin is a quinolin-based heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. It is a colourless, hygroscopic liquid with a strong odour, used as an anti-oxidant to prevent fats from going rancid. Used mainly in pet foods. There has been some speculation that ethoxyquin in pet foods might be responsible for multiple health problems.unknown-
E325Sodium lactateSodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and molasses. Sodium lactate acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent, which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi, and yeast. It is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance. It should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate.suspicious-
E326Potassium lactatePotassium lactate is the potassium salt of lactic acid, a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and molasses. Potassium lactate acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent, which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi and yeast. It is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance. It should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate.suspicious-
E327Calcium lactateCalcium lactate is the calcium salt of lactic acid, which is a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the action of lactic acid on calcium carbonate, to produce a white crystalline salt (a baking powder) that is soluble in water. Calcium lactate acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi, and yeast. It is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance. It should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate.suspicious-
E328Ammonium lactateAmmonium lactate is the ammonium salt of lactic acid, which is a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and molasses. Ammonium lactate acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi, and yeast.unknown-
E329Magnesium lactateMagnesium lactate is the magnesium salt of lactic acid, which is a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates, and molasses. It acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi and yeast. Magnesium lactate is also a mineral supplement.unknown-
E330Citric acidCitric acid is a natural weak organic acid found in many fruits, especially citrus fruits. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Citric acid does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits. Pseudo-allergic reactions (intolerance) have been reported, but these are very rare.safe-
E331Sodium citrates: Monosodium citrate, Disodium citrate, Sodium citrate (trisodium citrate)Sodium citrate is the sodium salt of citric acid. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Monosodium citrate is a strong sequestrant and is used to prevent clumping in blood samples. Disodium citrate is used as an anti-oxidant, acidity regulator, and sequestrate in foods. Trisoduim citrate is used as a flavour, and preservative in foods. This produces a white crystalline powder which is soluble in water. Citrates does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits. Pseudo-allergic reactions (intolerance) have been reported, but these are very rare.safe-
E332Potassium citrates: Monopotassium citrate, Potassium citrate(tripotassium citrate)Potassium citrate is the potassium salt of citric acid. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Potassium citrate is used as an acidity regulator and buffering agent in soft drinks. Tripostassium citrate can also be used as an antacid for the stomach. Citrates does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits. Pseudo-allergic reactions (intolerance) have been reported, but these are very rare.safe-
E333Calcium citrates: Monocalcium citrate, Dicalcium citrate, Calcium citrate (tricalcium citrate)Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Calcium citrate is used as an acidity regulator, preservative, anti-oxidant, sequestrant, firming agent, and sometimes a flavour in food. Citrates does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits. Pseudo-allergic reactions (intolerance) have been reported, but these are very rare.safe-
E334Tartaric acidTartaric acid is a natural organic acid that is in many plants especially grapes, bananas and tamarinds. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. Used in many products such as baking powder, chewing gum, jams and jellies, sweets, tinned fruit and vegetables, cocoa powder, and frozen dairy produce. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. It is not metabolised in the body; thus, it is excreted in the urine without side effects.suspicious-
E335Sodium tartrates: Monosodium tartrate, Disodium tartrateSodium tartrates are the sodium salts of tartaric acid. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. It is used as an acidity regulator, and anti-oxidant in food. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. It is not metabolised in the body; thus, it is excreted in the urine without side effects.suspicious-
E336Potassium tartrates: Monopotassium tartrate (cream of tartar), Dipotassium tartratePotassium tartrates are the postassium salts of tartaric acid. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. It is used as an acidity regulator, and anti-oxidant in food. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. It is not metabolised in the body; thus, it is excreted in the urine without side effects.suspicious-
E337Sodium potassium tartratePotassium sodium tartrates are the potassium and sodium salts (double salts) of tartaric acid. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. It is used as an acidity regulator, sequestrant, and stabiliser in food. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight. It is not metabolised in the body; thus, it is excreted in the urine without side effects.suspicious-
E338Orthophosphoric acidOrthophosphoric acid is natural mineral inorganic acid, that is mined primarily in the USA. It is very inexpensive and often used as a substitute for other natural acids, as only a small amount of phosphoric acid is needed to get the same result as other organic acids. It is used in foods as an acidity regulator, anti-oxidant, and flavour enhancer. Daily Intake: Up to 70 mg/kg body weight. It has no side effects. safe-
E339Sodium phosphates: Monosodium phosphate, Disodium phosphate, Trisodium phosphateSodium phosphate is the sodium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.safe-
E340Potassium phosphates: Monopotassium phosphate, Dipotassium phosphate, Tripotassium phosphatePotassium phosphate is the potassium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.safe-
E341Calcium phosphates: Monocalcium phosphate, Dicalcium phosphate, Tricalcium phosphateCalcium phosphate is the calcium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.safe-
E342Ammonium phosphates: Monoammonium phosphate, Diammonium phosphateAmmonium phosphate is the ammonium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.unknown-
E343Magnesium phosphates: Monomagnesium phosphate, Dimagnesium phosphateMagnesium phosphate is the magnesium salt of phosphoric acid. For similar details see E338.safe-
E344Lecitin citrateLecithin citrate is used as a preservative to prevent or delay spoilage in food, and also as an acidity regulator.unknown-
E345Magnesium citrateMagnesium citrate is the magnesium salt of citric acid, a natural weak organic acid found in many fruits, especially citrus fruits. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Magnesium citrate is used as an acidity regulator, and buffering agent in soft drinks, and also as a source of magnesium in vitamin supplements.unknown-
E349Ammonium malateAmmonium malate is the ammonium salt of malic acid. Commercially it is synthetically made. It acts as an acidity regulator, buffer, and a flavouring agent giving food a sharp tart taste.unknown-
E350Sodium malates: Sodium malate, Sodium hydrogen malateSodium malate is the sodium salt of malic acid. Commercially it is synthetically produced, and is used as an acidity regulator, buffer, and a flavouring agent giving food a sharp tart taste. It is not allowed in infant food, as infants lack the necessary enzymes to metabolise these compounds. suspicious-
E351Potassium malatePotassium malate is the potassium salt of malic acid. Commercially it is synthetically produced, and is used as an acidity regulator, buffer, and a flavouring agent giving food a sharp tart taste. It is not allowed in infant food, as infants lack the necessary enzymes to metabolise these compounds. suspicious-
E352Calcium malates: Calcium malate, Calcium hydrogen malateIt is the calcium salt of malic acid. Calcium malate is used as a thickener and flavouring. It is not allowed in infant food, as infants lack the necessary enzymes to metabolise these compounds. suspicious-
E353Metatartaric acidMetatartaric acid is produced by the internal esterification of tartaric acid. It is used to slow down or stop sedimentation in bottled wine. Daily Intake: Up to 30 mg/kg body weight .suspicious-
E354Calcium tartrateCalcium tartrate is the calcium salt of tartaric acid. Commercially it is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. It is used as an acidity regulator, and preservative in food.unknown-
E355Adipic acidAdipic acid is a natural organic acid that is found in beets, and sugar cane. Commercially it is prepared from the oxidation of cyclohexanol by concentrated nitric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator and buffer in dairy products and many food items, as a sequestrant in oils, as a gelling agent in puddings and desserts etc, and as a flour treatment and leavening agent in breads, baked, and bakery products. It is used as an acidulant in commercial baking powders. As it is non-hygroscopic it is used to prolong the shelf life of powdered products. Daily Intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E356Sodium adipateSodium adipate is the sodium salt of adipic acid, a natural organic acid that is found in beets, and sugar cane. Commercially it is prepared from the oxidation of cyclohexanol by concentrated nitric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator in food. Daily Intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E357Potassium adipatePotassium adipate is the potassium salt of adipic acid, a natural organic acid that is found in beets, and sugar cane. Commercially it is prepared from the oxidation of cyclohexanol by concentrated nitric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator, and anti-oxidant in food. Daily Intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E359Ammonium adipateAmmonium adipate is the ammonium salt of adipic acid, a natural organic acid that is found in beets, and sugar cane. Commercially it is prepared from the oxidation of cyclohexanol by concentrated nitric acid. It is used as an acidity regulator in food.unknown-
E363Succinic acidSuccinic acid is a natural acid present in most fruits and vegetables. Commercially it is produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of maleic acid or its anhydride. Succinic acid is used as an acidity regulator, preservative, and a flavour enhancer in foods. None known side effects; it is metabolised by the body (it is a normal component of all body cells). unknown-
E365Sodium fumarateSodium fumarate is the sodium salt of fumaric acid. See E297 for similar details. Daily Intake: Up to 6 mg/kg body weight. None known side effects; it is metabolised by the body (it is a normal component of all body cells). unknown-
E366Potassium fumaratePotassium fumarate is the potassium salt of fumaric acid. See E297 for similar details.unknown-
E367Calcium fumarateCalcium fumarate is the calcium salt of fumaric acid. See E297 for similar details.unknown-
E368Ammonium fumarateAmmonium fumarate is the ammonium salt of fumaric acid. See E297 for similar details.unknown-
E370Heptonolactone 1,41,4-Heptonolactone is a gamma lactone commercially synthesised from hydroxycarboxylic acid. It is used as an acidity regulator, artificial flavouring substance, and a sequestrant in food. Used in powdered desserts, dried soups, and as artificial coconut, nut, and vanilla flavours. unknown-
E375Niacin, nicotinic acid, vitamin B3Nicotinic acid more commonly known as vitamin B3, is a natural water-soluble vitamin found in many products. It is an essential human nutrient, commercially prepared from nicotine. It is used as an anti-oxidant, and colour stabiliser in food, and as a source of Vitamin B3 in dietary supplements and vitamin-fortified foods. Used in beer, food supplements, canned vegetables, and infant formula. It is also used in bath salts and pharmaceuticals. None known side effects when used at normal concentrations. suspicious-
E380Triammonium citrateTriammonium citrate is the ammonium salt of citric acid, a natural weak organic acid found in many fruits, especially citrus fruits. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. This produces a white crystalline powder which is soluble in water, and is used as an acidity regulator, buffer, and emulsifier in food. None known side effects; citric acid is a normal component of all body cells. suspicious-
E381Ammonium ferric citrateAmmonium ferric citrates are a complex mixture of ammonia, iron, and citric acid, a natural weak organic acid found in many fruits, especially citrus fruits. Commercially it may be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions, usually molasses or hydrolysed corn starch with Aspergillus niger. Its are used as an anti-caking agent in salt, and to enrich the iron content in iron-fortified food. Used in dietary supplements, processed meats, table-top sweeteners, bakery goods, batters, breakfast cereals, and infant formula supplements. Daily Intake: Up to 0.8 mg/kg body weight. suspicious-
E383Calcium glycerylphosphateCalcium glycerylphosphate is used as a mineral supplement, nutrient, and as an acidity regulator to change or maintain the pH in foods. Used in calcium-fortified foods, bakery, and dairy products. unknown-
E384Isopropyl citrateIsopropyl citrate is formed by esterifying citric acid with 2-propanol. The end result is a viscous, colourless syrup that is soluble in oils, and is used as a sequestrant, acidity regulator, and anti-oxidant in fatty foods. Used in fat spreads and oils. unknown-
E385Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, Calcium disodium EDTACalcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate is the calcium salt of disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate more commonly known as EDTA, which is a polyamino carboxylic acid that is produced synthetically from ethylenediamine, formaldehyde and sodium cyanide. Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Long-term exposure to high doses may result in depletion of metal(s) from the body (iron).suspicious-
E386Disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate, Disodium EDTADisodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate more commonly known as EDTA, is a polyamino carboxylic acid that is produced synthetically from ethylenediamine, formaldehyde, and sodium cyanide. It produces a colourless, water-soluble solid that is used in many products as a chelating agent, anti-oxidant, preservative, stabiliser, and as a sequestrant. Daily Intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Long-term exposure to high doses may result in depletion of metal(s) from the body (iron).suspicious-
E387OxystearinOxystearin is a mixture of glycerides of partially oxidised stearic acids and other fatty acids. It is obtained by heating hydrogenated cottonseed or soybean oil under controlled conditions, in the presence of air and a suitable catalyst. It is used as a crystallisation inhibitor in vegetable oils and salad oils, a releasing agent in vegetable oils and vegetable shortenings, and as a de-foamer in the production of beet sugar and yeast processing. Daily Intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. None known side effects in the concentrations used. The body treats it as fat. unknown-
E388Thiodipropionic acidThiodipropionic acid is a white crystalline powder with a slight characteristic odour that is soluble in hot water, acetone, and alcohol. It is synthetically made and is used as a secondary anti-oxidant to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. Used in fats, oils, and drinks that are prone to oxidation. Daily Intake: Up to 3 mg/kg body weight. None known side effects in the concentrations used.unknown-
E389Dilauryl thiodipropionateDilauryl thiodipropionate is an ester of thiodipropionic acid and lauryl alcohol. It is a white crystalline powder with a characteristic sweet odour that is insoluble in water, but soluble in most organic solvents (excluding alcohol). It is used as a secondary anti-oxidant to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. Used in fats, oils, and drinks that are prone to oxidation. unknown-
E390Distearyl thiodipropionateDistearyl thiodipropionate is an ester of thiodipropionic acid. It is a white crystalline powder with a characteristic sweet odour that is insoluble in water, but soluble in most organic solvents (excluding alcohol). It is used as an anti-oxidant to prevent fats and oils from oxidising and becoming rancid. Used in fats, oils, and drinks that are prone to oxidation. unknown-
E391Phytic acidPhytic acid is isolated from plants that belong to the group of organic phosphates, extracted from the hulls of seeds, nuts and grains like wheat bran and flaxseed. It is isolated in the form of a clear to pale yellow viscous liquid. It is a strong chelator of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Phytic acid is used as an anti-oxidant to prevent oxidation in foods and wines (and reduce fermentation time), and as a preservative and stabiliser to prevent the change of properties or colours in foods.unknown-
E392Extracts of rosemaryExtract from Rosmarinus officinalis. Rosemary extract has been shown to improve the shelf life and heat stability of omega 3-rich oils, which are prone to rancidity. It can cause allergic skin reactions. According to recent European research, rosemary interferes with the absorption of iron and should not be consumed by those with iron deficiency anemia. Precaution is necessary for those displaying allergic reaction or are prone to epileptic seizures. Avoid consuming large quantities of rosemary especially if pregnant or breastfeeding.unknown-
E399Calcium lactobionateCalcium lactobionate is the calcium salt of lactobionic acid, which is a disaccharide formed from gluconic acid and galactose. It forms a white to off-white, odourless crystalline powder that dissolves in water. It is used as an anti-oxidant, stabiliser and firming agent in food. Used in dry pudding mixes, and mineral supplements. unknown-


Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.

Food additives – Preservatives

Preservatives codes: 200–299; Subranges: 200–209 sorbates, 210–219 benzoates, 220–229 sulphites, 230–239 phenols & formates (methanoates), 240–259 nitrates, 260–269 acetates (ethanoates), 270–279 lactates, 280–289 propionates (propanoates), 290–299 others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as preservatives:

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E200Sorbic acidSorbic acid naturally occurs in the fruit of the European Mountain-ash (Sorbus aucuparia). Sorbic acid is a preservative, mainly against fungi and yeasts. It is used in a wide range of products. Daily intake: Up to 25 mg/kg body weight. Only a very small percentage of people show slight pseudo-allergic reactions.suspicious-
E201Sodium sorbateSodium salt of sorbic acid. See E200 for similar details.unknown-
E202Potassium sorbatePotassium salt of sorbic acid. See E200 for similar details.unknown-
E203Calcium sorbateCalcium salt of sorbic acid. See E200 for similar details.unknown-
E209Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate, heptylparabenHeptyl para-hydroxybenzoate is the heptyl ester of para-hydroxybenzoic acid. They are widely used as preservatives that inhibit the growth of yeast, fungi, and bacteria. Heptyl para-hydroxybenzoate is not pH sensitive. Commercially it is synthetically made from toluene, which is then esterified.avoid-
E210Benzoic acidBenzoic acid, and benzoates (211-219), are commonly found in many natural foods (cinnamon, cloves, and mushrooms), but especially in fruit, largely berries (cranberry). It is largely used for making its salts and esters, which are widely used as preservatives that inhibit the growth of yeast, fungi, and bacteria in acidic foods where the pH of the foods and beverages are below pH 3.6. Commercially it is synthetically made from toluene. A preservatives against both yeasts and fungi in acidic products. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. Best avoided by people with allergy reactions as it can cause a rash similar to nettle rash with large quantities also causing gastric irritation. When combined with Tartrazine (E102) it provokes a very high hyperactive response in children. Can cause asthma, especially in those dependent on steroid asthma medications, is also reputed to cause neurological disorders and to react with sodium bisulphite (E222).avoid-
E211Sodium benzoate, benzoate of sodaSee 210 for similar details. In combination with ascorbic acid (E300), sodium benzoate form benzene, a known carcinogen. However, in most beverages that contain both, the benzene levels are below those considered dangerous for consumption. Heat, light and shelf life can affect the rate at which benzene is formed.danger-
E212Potassium benzoateSee 210 for similar details. In combination with ascorbic acid (E300), potassium benzoate form benzene, a known carcinogen. However, in most beverages that contain both, the benzene levels are below those considered dangerous for consumption. Heat, light and shelf life can affect the rate at which benzene is formed.danger-
E213Calcium benzoateSee 210 for similar details.avoid-
E214Ethylparaben, Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoateEthyl ester of para-hydroxybenzoic acid. See 210 for similar details. Daily intake: Up to 10 mg/kg body weight. avoid-
E215Sodium ethylparaben, Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate Sodium salt of ethylparaben (E214). See 210 for similar details. Daily intake: Up to 10 mg/kg body weight. unknown-
E216Propylparaben, Propyl para-hydroxybenzoateThe propyl ester of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, occurs as a natural substance found in many plants and some insects, although it is manufactured synthetically for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and foods. See 210 for similar details. Daily intake: Up to 10 mg/kg body weight. danger-
E217Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoateSodium salt of propylparaben (E216). See 210 for similar details. Daily intake: Up to 10 mg/kg body weight.danger-
E218Methylparaben, methyl para-hydroxybenzoateMethyl ester of para-hydroxybenzoic acid. See 210 for similar details. Daily intake: Up to 10 mg/kg body weight.avoid-
E219Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoateThe sodium salt of methylparaben (E218). See 210 for similar details. Daily intake: Up to 10 mg/kg body weight.avoid-
E220Sulphur dioxideSulphur dioxide is a colourless gas that is prepared by burning sulphur. Sulphur is naturally occurring in coal and petroleum products. It is highly soluble in water and it's this resultant acid, Sulphurous acid, that imparts its use as a preservative. It's antimicrobial in action which prevents the enzymatic and bacterial spoilage of food, and improves the overall appearance of food, making it look fresher than it might be. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. It is known to provoke asthma attacks and is difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function. It also destroys vitamins B1 and E.avoid-
E221Sodium sulphiteSodium sulphite is a salt of sulphurous acid. It's anti-microbial, an anti-oxidant, and an anti-browning agent. Used in wine, beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, fruit drinks, vinegar, potato products, condiments, processed fruits and vegetables, fish and shellfish, etc. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. May provoke asthma attacks and is difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function. It also destroys vitamins B1 and E. People who are intolerant towards natural sulphites should also avoid added sulphites (E221-228).avoid-
E222Sodium bisulphite, Sodium hydrogen sulphiteIt is a salt of sulphurous acid. Sodium bisulphite is also added to leafy green vegetables in salad bars and elsewhere, to preserve apparent freshness, under names like LeafGreen. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. The concentration is sometimes high enough to cause severe allergic reactions. May cause an allergic reaction in some people, especially asthmatics. Destroys vitamins B1 and E. People who are intolerant towards natural sulphites should also avoid added sulphites (E221-228).avoid-
E223Sodium metabisulphite, sodium pyrosulphiteSodium metabisulphite is a salt of sulphurous acid. It's anti-microbial, an anti-oxidant, and an anti-browning agent. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. May cause allergic reactions, particularly skin irritation, gastric irritation and asthma. Destroys vitamins B1 and E. People who are intolerant towards natural sulphites should also avoid added sulphites (E221-228).avoid-
E224Potassium metabisulphitePotassium metabisulphite is a salt of sulphurous acid. It's anti-microbial, an anti-oxidant, and an anti-browning agent. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. Can cause asthma, cyanosis, faintness and even unconsciousness. Destroys vitamins B1 and E. People who are intolerant towards natural sulphites should also avoid added sulphites (E221-228).avoid-
E225Potassium sulphitePotassium sulphite is a salt of sulphurous acid. It's anti-microbial, an anti-oxidant, and an anti-browning agent. Used in wine, beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, fruit drinks, vinegar, potato products, condiments, processed fruits and vegetables, fish and shellfish, etc. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. May cause allergic reactions. People who are intolerant towards natural sulphites should also avoid added sulphites (E221-228).avoid-
E226Calcium sulphiteCalcium sulphite is a salt of sulphurous acid. It's anti-microbial and an anti-oxidant in action which prevents the enzymatic and bacterial spoilage of food, and improves the overall appearance of food, making it look fresher than it might be. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. May cause asthma. A gastric irritant. Destroys vitamins B and E. People who are intolerant towards natural sulphites should also avoid added sulphites (E221-228).avoid-
E227Calcium hydrogen sulphite, Calcium metabisulphite, Calcium bisulphiteCalcium hydrogen sulphite is a salt of sulphurous acid. It's anti-microbial and an anti-oxidant. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. May cause allergic reaction. People who are intolerant towards natural sulphites should also avoid added sulphites (E221-228).avoid-
E228Potassium hydrogen sulphite, Potassium bisulphitePotassium hydrogen sulphite is a salt of sulphurous acid. It's anti-microbial and an anti-oxidant. Daily Intake: Up to 0.7 mg/kg body weight. People who are intolerant towards natural sulphites should also avoid added sulphites (E221-228).avoid-
E230Biphenyl, diphenyl, phenylbenzeneBiphenyl occurs naturally in small amounts in crude oil, but is predominantly produced from benzene. The white water-insoluble powder is an anti-fungal and used as a preservative to inhibit the growth of moulds, and fungi on citrus fruit during shipment, transportation and storage. Sometimes fruits are dipped in a solution of diphenyl, which slowly penetrates the peel and may be present in the fruit itself. Sensitivity has been reported for people handling large consignments of citrus fruits (ships, trucks).avoid-
E231Orthophenyl phenolOrthophenyl phenol is a synthetically made powdered agricultural fungicide and anti-microbial agent. It is applied post-harvest as a surface treatment to citrus fruit, to inhibit the growth of moulds, fungi and bacteria during shipment, transportation and storage. It slowly penetrates the peel and may be present in the fruit itself. It is also used for disinfection of seed boxes. It is a general surface disinfectant, used in households, hospitals, nursing homes, farms, laundries, barber shops, and food processing plants.avoid-
E232Sodium orthophenyl phenolSodium orthophenyl phenol is the salt of orthophenyl phenol. See E231 for similar details. Used especially against Penicillium fungi growing on citrus fruits, apples and pears. It is very soluble in water, and used for spraying or dipping fruits. It slowly penetrates the skin and may be present in the fruit itself.avoid-
E233ThiabendazoleIt is a fungicide that is used to control mould, rot and other fungal diseases on fruit, especially citrus and bananas. It also acts as a preservative to help fruits look fresher and more appealing, and can also be used in conjunction with waxes. Used in sauces, gravies, dressings, drinks (carbonated, non-carbonated, fruit and vegetable juices), and bakery items. It is also an antiparasitic.avoid-
E234NisinNisin is a polypeptide (short protein), natural, broad spectrum antibiotic produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Used as a preservative against Gram-positive spoilage bacteria. Used in sauces, gravies, dressings, drinks (carbonated, non-carbonated, fruit and vegetable juices), and bakery items. Daily Intake: Up to 33000 units/kg body weight. As it is a protein, it is treated by the body as such, and digested in the small intestine. suspicious-
E235Natamycin, PimaracinNatamycin is a natural antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces natalensis and related strains. It is used as a preservative by specifically inhibiting the growth of fungi, moulds, and yeasts. Daily Intake: Up to 0.3 mg/kg body weight. In humans, a dose of 500 mg/kg/day repeated over multiple days caused nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.suspicious-
E236Formic acidFormic acid occurs naturally in stinging nettles, and in the stings and bites of many insects, notably bees and ants. Commercially it is chemically produced. It acts as a preservative and as an anti-bacterial agent. Daily intake: Up to 3 mg/kg bodyweight. High concentrations are diuretic and allergic.unknown-
E237Sodium formateSodium formate is the sodium salt of formic acid. See E236 for similar details. Commercially it is chemically produced. It acts as a preservative and as an anti-bacterial agent.unknown-
E238Calcium formateCalcium formate is the sodium salt of formic acid. See E236 for similar details. Commercially it is chemically produced. It acts as a preservative and as an anti-bacterial agent.unknown-
E239Hexamine, hexamethylene tetramineHexamine is chemically produced by combining formaldehyde and ammonia. It acts as a preservative and as an anti-bacterial agent. Used in processed and cured meats, luncheon meats, bacon, sausages, ham, hot dogs, salami, smoked and cured fish. Daily Intake: Up to 0.15 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations have considerable side effects; however, these concentrations are never reached in foods, due to the taste it imparts.avoid-
E240FormaldehydeFormaldehyde is formed naturally by smoking or heating protein-rich foods. Commercially synthesised from methanol. It is not used in foods, but used to disinfect containers, pipes and vessels in the food industry, it is (was) also largely used in wood industry. In some Asian countries there are cases with illegal uses of formaldeyde in some foods. Daily Intake: Up to 0.15 mg/kg body weight. In humans, the ingestion of formaldehyde has been shown to cause vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, and in extreme cases can cause death. Known to be a human carcinogen and otherwise very toxic.danger-
E242Dimethyl dicarbonate, DMDCDimethyl dicarbonate is chemically manufactured in Germany and is used as a preservative and as an anti-bacterial agent in a process called cold-sterilisation. Dimethyl dicarbonate is added to drinks before they are filtered, so as to destroy any organisms which might be present. DMDC is sometimes used as a preservative in wine as a replacement to sulfur dioxide (E220). No side effects.safe-
E249Potassium nitritePotassium nitrite is a naturally occurring mineral salt that can be extracted, or be synthetically produced from potassium nitrate. It acts as a curing agent, a preservative, an anti-bacterial agent to inhibit the growth of the botulism-causing bacterium (Clostridium botulinum), and as a colour retention agent. Daily Intake: Up to 0.06 mg/kg body weight. Nitrites are precursors of (possibly carcinogenic) nitrosamines, which are formed in the stomach. High concentrations may react with haemoglobin. It is not allowed in products intended for children under 1 year. Little children have a different type of haemoglobin, which is much more reactive towards nitrites than normal haemoglobin.danger-
E250Sodium nitriteSodium nitrite is a naturally occurring mineral salt that can be extracted, or be synthetically produced from sodium nitrate. It acts as a curing agent, a preservative, an anti-bacterial agent to inhibit the growth of the botulism-causing bacterium (Clostridium botulinum), and as a colour retention agent that fixes the colour of meats and fish. Daily Intake: Up to 0.06 mg/kg body weight. May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions. Nitrites are precursors of (possibly carcinogenic) nitrosamines, which are formed in the stomach. High concentrations may react with haemoglobin. It is not allowed in products intended for children under 6 months. Little children have a different type of haemoglobin, which is much more reactive towards nitrites than normal haemoglobin.danger-
E251Sodium nitrate, Chile saltpeterSodium nitrate is a naturally occurring mineral salt that can be mined and extracted from caliche, or be synthetically produced. It can also be found in many vegetables, especially leafy greens. It acts as a curing agent, a preservative, an anti-bacterial agent. Daily Intake: Up to 3.7 mg/kg body weight. It forms nitrosamines - human carcinogens known to cause DNA damage and increased cellular degeneration.danger-
E252Potassium nitrate, SaltpetrePotassium nitrate is a naturally occurring mineral salt that can be mined and extracted, or be synthetically produced. It acts as a curing agent, a preservative, an anti-bacterial agent. As a food preservative it is one of the most effective (and oldest) ways of preserving meat. Daily intake: Up to 3.7 mg/kg body weight. Whilst in general it is rapidly excreted, under some specific conditions it may be converted in the stomach and saliva to potassium nitrite, which can prevent haemoglobin in the red blood corpuscles performing as an oxygen carrier. This can lead to cyanosis. May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions.danger-
E260Acetic acid, ethanoic acidAcetic acid is a natural acid produced by bacterial fermentation and oxidation of natural products or ethanol. Commercially it's produced by the oxidation of acetaldehyde. It acts as a preservative, acidity regulator (acidulant), and anti-microbial agent, and is highly effective against bacteria and fungi. It is also used as a flavour enhancer to impart a biting, sour or tangy taste. No side effects, it is a normal component of all body cells. Should only be avoided by people who have a (very rare) vinegar intolerance.safe-
E261Potassium acetatePotassium salt of acetic acid. See E260 for similar details. Should be avoided by people with impaired kidney function.suspicious-
E262Sodium acetate, Sodium diacetate (sodium hydrogen acetate)Sodium salt of acetic acid, an natural acid, present in most fruits. Produced by bacterial fermentation and thus present in all fermented products. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar, molasses or alcohol or by chemical synthesis from acetealdehyde. Daily intake: Up to 15 mg/kg body weight . Should only be avoided by people who have a (very rare) vinegar intolerance. suspicious-
E263Calcium acetate Calcium salt of acetic acid, an natural acid, present in most fruits. Produced by bacterial fermentation and thus present in all fermented products. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar, molasses or alcohol or by chemical synthesis from acetealdehyde. Should only be avoided by people who have a (very rare) vinegar intolerance.suspicious-
E264Ammonium acetateCalcium salt of acetic acid, an natural acid, present in most fruits. Produced by bacterial fermentation and thus present in all fermented products. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar, molasses or alcohol or by chemical synthesis from acetealdehyde. It is also used as a flavour enhancer to impart a biting, sour or tangy taste. Should only be avoided by people who have a (very rare) vinegar intolerance. It can cause vomiting.avoid-
E265Dehydroacetic acidDehydroacetic acid is a pyrone derivative used mostly as a fungicide and bactericide. It is used to reduce pickle bloating as a preservative for squash and strawberries. Also used in antienzyme toothpastes.unknown-
E266Sodium dehydroacetateThe sodium salt, sodium dehydroacetate, is often used in place of dehydroacetic acid because of its greater solubility in water. See E265 for similar details.unknown-
E270Lactic acidLactic acid is a natural acid produced by the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar). It is produced commercially from the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates and molasses. It acts as a preservative, acidity regulator, and anti-microbial agent which is highly effective against bacteria, fungi and yeast. Also produced in body during intensive exercises. No side effects in adults. D- or DL-lactates (stereoisomers) should not be given to babies and small children, as they have not yet developed the appropriate enzymes in the liver to metabolise these forms of lactate.suspicious-
E280Propionic acidPropionic acid occurs naturally in fermented food. Commercially it is chemically produced from ethylene, carbon monoxide, natural gas, fermented wood or from propionaldehyde. Propionic acid and it's propionate salts (sodium, calcium and potassium) are the main preservatives in breads, bakery goods, and flour products. They are also anti-microbial agents against bacteria, fungi, predominately against moulds. Used in breads, bakery and flour based products, pizzas, cheese, and diary products. It is a short chain fatty acid and some researces say that in some cases may worsen symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), epilepsy and some inheritable metabolic disorders due to the elevated level of propionic acid when person has some metabolic disorders (such as propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, disorders of biotin metabolism, B12 deficiency).avoid-
E281Sodium propionateSodium salt of propionic acid. See E280 for similar details.avoid-
E282Calcium propionateCalcium salt of propionic acid. See E280 for similar details.suspicious-
E283Potassium propionatePotassium salt of propionic acid. See E280 for similar details.avoid-
E284Boric acidBoric acid is a natural mineral acid and is commercially produced from borate and sulphuric acid. As a food additive, it acts as a preservative and acidity regulator. Rarely used in foods, but has many industrial applications. Daily intake: Up to 0.1 mg/kg body weight. In high doses can cause several severe side effects, as kidney damage. It is poisonous if taken internally or inhaled in large quantities.avoid-
E285Sodium tetraborate, BoraxSodium salt of boric acid. See E284 for similar details. Borax has many industrial uses including as an added ingredient in washing powder, water softeners and soaps, added to clay, etc. It is used on, not in foods, as an inorganic herbicide or insecticide. It is not permitted in some countries however, borax and boric acid are sometimes illegally added to foods to improve colour, texture and flavour.avoid-
E290Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide is a natural gas that's formed by the complete oxidation of carbon. It is used as a preservative, propellant and as a packaging gas that displaces oxygen in foods to inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause food spoilage, and to reduce the speed of oxidation. It is used in the carbonation of soft drinks by adding carbon dioxide to water forming carboxylic acid. safe-
E296Malic acidMalic acid is a natural acid present in most fruits and many vegetables. Commercially made by chemical synthesis. It is part of the metabolic pathway of every living cell. Irritant. High concentrations are not permitted in infant food, as small children lack the capacity to metabolise large amounts of malic acid.suspicious-
E297Fumaric acidFumaric acid is a natural acid widely found in plants (genus Fumaria officianalis) and in nature. It can be made by the catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial fermentation on glucose. It produces a white odourless crystalline powder that is the strongest organic food acid in tartness and sourness. It acts as an acidity regulator, anti-oxidant, flavour, and a raising agent in flour based, baked goods. A fumaric acid ester is currently under investigation for treatment of multiple sclerosis. It converts to the irritant maleic anhydride, upon partial combustion.safe-

Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.

Food additives – Colours

Colours codes 100–199; Subranges: 100–109 yellows, 110–119 oranges, 120–129 reds, 130–139 blues & violets, 140–149 greens, 150–159 browns & blacks, 160–199 gold and others.
Here there is a list with food additives used as colours:

CodeNameDescriptionRiskUser Rate
E100Curcumin, TurmericNatural colour isolated from the roots and stem of Yellowroot (Curcuma longa and Curcuma domestica). Turmeric is the crude extract, whereas curcumin is the purified compound. It imparts the yellow colour to curry powder. Largely used in India and other Asian countries in traditional medicine and has many benefits. Daily intake: Up to 1 mg/kg body weight for curcumin, and 0.3 mg/kg for turmeric. It is safe for consumption but caution with large quantities, some people can experience nausea or diarrhea. Turmeric can make gallbladder problems worse. Don't use turmeric if you have gallstones or a bile duct obstruction or if you are pregnant because it is an uterine stimulant.suspicious-
E101Riboflavin, Vitamin B2, LactoflavinRiboflavin in found naturally in some foods, but commercially it is manufactured synthetically and can also be prepared from yeasts including Candida flaveri and Candida famata. It is used to impart a yellow to orange colour in foods, as well as a being a vitamin supplement, and food fortifier. Daily intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. safe-
E101aRiboflavin-5'-PhosphateIs a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (E 101) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase. It may be used in preference to Riboflavin due to better solubility, however it is more expensive. Daily intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight.unknown-
E102Tartrazine, FDC Yellow 5Tartrazine is a synthetically produced yellow azo dye (a synthetic colour that contain an azo group. Daily intake: Up to 7.5 mg/kg body weight. No side effects are known for pure tartrazine, except in people who are intolerant to salicylates (aspirin, berries, fruits); in that case tartrazine also induces intolerance symptoms. In combination with benzoates (E210-215), tartrazine is implicated in a large percentage of cases of ADHD syndrome (hyperactivity) in children. Asthmatics may also experience symptoms following consumption of tartrazine, as it is a known histamine-liberating agent. It is link to DNA damage and tumors of the thyroid.danger-
E103Alkannin, Chrysoine ResorcinolDue to its toxic effects banned in 1980s in Europe. Alkannin is a natural dye that is obtained from the extracts of plants from the borage family Alkanna tinctoria that are found in the south of France. Alkannin is an antioxidant and has an antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. It is also known to have wound healing, antitumor, and antithrombotic properties.danger-
E104Quinoline Yellow WSYellow food azo dye. Daily intake: Up to 10 mg/kg body weight. Can causes allergic reaction (may act as a histamine liberator) and dermatitis. It can also causes hyperactivity in children.avoid-
E105Fast Yellow ABAn azo dye yielding a yellow colour, formerly used for food colouring. It is used as a food coloring, in printing inks, as a biological stain, a dental plaque disclosing agent and a radiopaque medium. It is now delisted in both Europe and USA and is forbidden if used in foods and drinks, as toxicological data has shown it is harmful. E105 has been implicated in non-atopic asthma.danger-
E106Riboflavin-5'-Sodium PhosphateA very closely related food dye with E101a and it is its sodium salt. It is rapidly turned to free riboflavin after ingestion. It is found in many foods for babies and young children as well as jams, milk products, and sweets and sugar products.unknown-
E107Yellow 2GYellow 2G is a yellow azo dye and a synthetic coal tar. Since it is an azo dye, E107 is implicated in allergies, hyperactivity and asthma. Use is limited and the colour may be banned in the near future. It is not listed by the UK's Food Standards Agency among EU approved food additives. Its use is banned in Austria, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States.avoid-
E110Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S, Yellow 6Sunset Yellow is a synthetic coal tar and azo yellow dye which is useful in fermented foods which must be heat treated. It is used to induce a colour change in some products. Banned in Norway. Daily intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates (aspirin). Additionally, it is a histamine liberator and has various side effects: gastric upset, urticaria or nettle rash, diarrhea, vomiting, numbness, swollen skin, sore and watery eyes, asthma and cough, dramatic change in behavior and mood swings, headache, sinus attacks, constipation, blood pressure disorders, sleeping disorders, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.danger-
E111Orange GGNOrange GGN is an orange food dye that is derived from the disodium salt. As a blue color, Brilliant Blue FCF is often found in ice cream, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, ice pops, blue raspberry flavored products, dairy products, sweets and drinks. In Europe it has been forbidden for use in foods since 1 January 1978 (EU directive 76/399/EEC). It has never been included in the food additives list of the codex allimentarius. As such it is presently forbidden for food use in general, because toxicological data has shown it is harmful.danger-
E120Cochineal Extract, Carminic Acid, Carmine, Natural Red 4Cochineal is a natural red colour which is derived from the insect Dayctylopius coccus, which feeds off various cacti plants. The body and eggs are used to extract the Carminic acid to produce the carminic dye. It is very soluble, oxidation resistant, light, and heat stable. Used in cheese, parsley sauce, ice-cream, soups, chewing gum, green vegetables and fruits preserved in liquids. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. Cochineal it is neither toxic nor known to be carcinogenic. However, the dye can induce an anaphylactic-shock reaction in a small number of people who are allergic to carmine. It can also (rarely) cause a skin irritation while using cosmetic products containing it.avoid-
E121Citrus Red 2Citrus Red 2 is a synthetic food dye which is extracted from several species of lichen, also known as orchella weeds. Citrus Red 2 yields an orange to yellow colour, and can also be a dark red powder. Used in gravy granules, mint sauce, ice-cream, desserts, tinned peas, and sweets. Approved in the United States only for use in colouring the skin of oranges. It is listed as an IARC Group 2B carcinogen, meaning that it is possibly carcinogenic to humans.danger-
E122Carmoisine, Azorubine, Food Red 3Carmoisine is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red to maroon powder and usually comes as a disodium salt. Caramel color is one of the oldest and most widely-used food colorings, and is found in almost every kind of industrially produced food, including: batters, beer, brown bread, buns, chocolate, cookies, cough drops, dark liquor such as brandy, rum, and whisky, chocolate-flavored flour-based confectionery, coatings, custards, decorations, fillings and toppings, potato chips, dessert mixes, doughnuts, fish and shellfish spreads, frozen desserts, fruit preserves, glucose tablets, gravy browning, ice cream, pickles, sauces and dressings, soft drinks (especially colas), sweets, vinegar, and wines. Daily intake: Up to 4 mg/kg body weight. Currently banned in Canada, Japan, Norway, USA . It appears to cause allergic or intolerance reactions, particularly amongst those with an aspirin intolerance. Other reactions can include a rash similar to nettle rash and skin swelling. Asthmatics sometimes react badly to it, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.danger-
E123Amaranth, FDC Red 2Amaranth is a dark red to purple azo dye and usually comes as a trisodium salt. It is derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name. Daily intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Since 1976 it has been banned in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it is a suspected carcinogen. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.danger-
E124Ponceau 4R, Cochineal Red A, Brilliant Scarlet 4RPonceau 4R is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red colour. Used in Beer, synthetic soy sauce, and confectionery Caramel color or caramel coloring is a soluble food coloring. Daily intake: Up to 4 mg/kg body weight. Ponceau 4R is considered carcinogenic in some countries, including US, Norway, and Finland and it is currently listed as a banned substance by the U.S.FDA. It may elicit intolerance in people allergic to salicylates (aspirin). Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.danger-
E125Ponceau SX, Scarlet GNPonceau SX is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red colour and usually comes as a disodium salt. Used in Acidic environments such as soft drinks; Caramel color or caramel coloring is a soluble food coloring. It is permitted in fruit peels and maraschino cherries. Ponceau SX may cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. In EU banned in year 1978.avoid-
E126Ponceau 6RPonceau 6R is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red colour and usually comes as a disodium salt. It is soluble in water and only slightly soluble in ethanol. It is used as a food dye and a histological stain on slides. In EU banned in year 1978.avoid-
E127Erythrosine, FDC Red 3Erythrosine is a cherry-pink to red synthetic coal tar dye. Daily intake: Up to 0.1 mg/kg body weight. Some research says that high doses have been found to cause cancer in rats. Inhibits the action of pepsin and altered thyroid function. Increased hyperactivity has been reported in a few cases, as well as a possible connection with mutagenicity. Erythrosine causes an increased photosensitivity in people with sensitivity to sunlight.avoid-
E128Red 2GRed 2G is a synthetic azo dye which yields a red colour. It is also banned in EU, Australia, Austria, Canada, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Israel, and Malaysia. Recent animal studies in EU show that aniline should be considered as a carcinogen and genotoxic. Children's Support Group recommends be eliminated from the diet of children.danger-
E129Allura Red AC, FDC Red 40Allura Red AC is an azo dye that yields a red colour and usually comes in a powder as a sodium salt. It was introduced as a replacement for Amaranth as a food colouring. Daily intake: Up to 7 mg/kg body weight. Banned in Switzerland. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children. One of its degradation products causes bladder cancer in animals when present in high concentrations. danger-
E130Indanthrene blue RS, Anthraquinone blueIndanthrone blue is an organic dye. In EU banned in year 1978.danger-
E131Patent Blue VPatent Blue V is a synthetic coal tar dye which yields a bluish-violet colour. It is a sodium or calcium salt and has the appearance of a violet powder. It is used mainly in chocolate cakes, but also in milk and cheeses, yoghurts, jams, fruit products, fish, and other products. Daily intake: Up to 15 mg/kg body weight. It may cause allergic reactions, with symptoms ranging from itching and nettle rash to nausea, hypotension, and in rare cases anaphylactic shock; it is not recommended for childrendanger-
E132Indigo carmine, Indigotine, FDC Blue 2Indigo dye is a synthetic coal tar dye with a distinctive blue colour. Formally the dye was extracted from Phoenician sea snails and several species of plants. Almost all Indigo dye today is produced synthetically. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. Rare allergic reactions have been described, due to coupling of the colour to (body) proteins. It can also function as a histamine liberator.avoid-
E133Brilliant Blue FCF, FDC Blue 1Brilliant blue FCF is a synthetic dye derived from coal tar and is usually a disodium salt. Some allergic reactions have been reported. It is not recommended for children, it can cause hyperactivity.avoid-
E140Chlorophylls, ChlorophyllinsChlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. A fairly unstable dye, which tends to fade easily (see E141). Not easy to obtain in a pure form and commercially available chloroyphyll usually contains other plant material impurities. The usual sources are nettles, spinach and grass with the chloroyphyll being extracted using acetone, ethanol, light petroleum, methylethylketone and diachloromethane. Lutein, E161b, may be extracted at the same time. No side effects are known.safe-
E141Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllinsThey are derived from Chlorophyll (E140), by substitution of copper for the magnesium, which increases their stability. Daily intake: Up to 15 mg/kg body weight. No adverse effects are known. Copper is released when E141 is heated; however, copper concentrations from this compound will not reach toxic levelssafe-
E142Green SGreen S is a synthetic coal tar triarylmethane dye which yields a green colour. It is a vital dye, meaning it can be used to stain living cells. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. It is prohibited as a food additive in Canada, United States, Japan, and Norway. Green S may cause allergic reactions and is one of the colourants recommended to be eliminated from the diet of children because it can cause hyperactivity.avoid-
E143Fast Green FCF, FDC Green 3It is a sea green triarylmethane food dye. This substance has been found to have tumorigenic effects in experimental animals, as well as mutagenic effects in both experimental animals and humans. Its use as a food dye is prohibited in European Union and some other countries.danger-
E150aPlain caramelPlain caramel, caustic caramel, spirit caramel. Used in whiskey among many.The caramel group of colours are the oldest and the most widely used group of colours. Caramel colouring may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as lactose, dextrose, starch hydrolysates, or malt syrup. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic caramel colouring.safe-
E150bCaustic sulphite caramelUsed in Cognac. The caramel group of colours are the oldest and the most widely used group of colours. Caramel colouring may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as lactose, dextrose, starch hydrolysates, or malt syrup. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic caramel colouring.safe-
E150cAmmonia caramelAmmonia caramel, baker's caramel, confectioner's caramel, beer caramel. Used in beer, sauces, and confectionary. The caramel group of colours are the oldest and the most widely used group of colours. Daily intake: Up to 200 mg/kg body weight. Caramel colouring may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as lactose, dextrose, starch hydrolysates, or malt syrup. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic caramel colouring. Intestinal problems may occur after ingestion of large amounts.suspicious-
E150dSulphite ammonia caramelSulfite ammonia caramel, acid-proof caramel, soft-drink caramel. Used in soft drinks. The caramel group of colours are the oldest and the most widely used group of colours. Daily intake: Up to 200 mg/kg body weight. Caramel colouring may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as lactose, dextrose, starch hydrolysates, or malt syrup. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic caramel colouring. Intestinal problems may occur after ingestion of large amounts.suspicious-
E151Black PN, Brilliant Black BNBrilliant Black BN is a synthetic coal tar and azo dye which yields a violet-black colour and usually comes as a tetrasodium salt. Daily intake: Up to 1-5 mg/kg body weight. It has been banned in the United States, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, Austria, Switzerland, Japan, Finland and Norway. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children. In the intestines, it can be transformed by bacteria into possibly hazardous compounds, hence the rather low ADI and restricted use.avoid-
E152Black 7984, Food Black 2It is a brown-to-black synthetic diazo dye. It is often used as the tetrasodium salt. Its use in food is discontinued in USA and EU since 1984. It is also not permitted in Australia and Japan. Black 7984 is also used in cosmetics. Black 7984 may cause allergic or intolerance reactions, particularly amongst those with an aspirin intolerance.[citation needed] It is a histamine liberator, and may worsen the symptoms of asthma. May cause hyperativity in children.avoid-
E153Carbon black, Vegetable carbonCarbon black is a natural food colour normally derived from burnt vegetable matter. Used medically as an anti-diarrhoeal agent. It is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).avoid-
E154Brown FK, Kipper brownBrown FK is a combination of six different synthetic azo dyes with sodium chloride and/or sodium sulphate, and yields a brown to black colour. It is banned in the European Union (but was allowed to colour kippers to produce orange kippers). It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children. Some of the compounds in the mixture may be mutagenic; hence the use is restricted to a few products.danger-
E155Brown HT, Chocolate brown HTBrown HT is a synthetic azo dye which yields a brown colour. It is banned in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, United States, Norway, Switzerland, and Sweden. It may elicit intolerance in people intolerant to salicylates. Additionally, it is a histamine liberator, and may intensify symptoms of asthma. In combination with benzoates, it is also implicated in hyperactivity in children.avoid-
E160aAlpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Gamma-caroteneNatural colour isolated from several plants; however, it is obtained commercially from carrots. Carotenes occur as isomers, consisting of a series of chemically identical, but sterically different components. The actual composition differs between the plant species. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. High concentrations will result in yellow discoloration of the skin. As carotene is a source of vitamin A (2 parts of carotene equal 1 part of vitamin A), high concentrations will cause symptoms of vitamin A toxicity. safe-
E160bAnnatto, Bixin, NorbixinNatural colour isolated from the seeds of the annatto tree (Bixa orellana ). Annatto is the name of the crude extract, whereas bixin is the fat-soluble colour and norbixin the water-soluble colour. Daily intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight for annatto, and 0.065 mg/kg body weight for bixin. Annatto can cause allergies and eczema. It is not always known which component in the mixture is the causative agent of the side effects.avoid-
E160cPaprika oleoresin, Capsanthin, Capsorubin, Paprika extract, Capsicum (bell pepper) extractNatural colour isolated from the bell pepper, Capsicum annuum. This mixture mainly contains capsacain and capsorubin. None known side effects.safe-
E160dLycopeneNatural colour, present in many yellow and red plants and fruits. Commercially isolated from tomatoes. There are also cases of intolerance or allergic reaction to dietary lycopene, which may cause diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain or cramps, gas, vomiting, and loss of appetite.safe-
E160eBeta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30)Natural colour, present in many plants. Betanin, or Beetroot Red, is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. No side effects known in the concentrations used in foods. High concentrations will result in yellow discolouration of the skin. As E160e is a source of vitamin A, high concentrations will cause symptoms of vitamin A toxicity. Possible carcinogen.safe-
E160fEthyl ester of beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid (C 30)Natural colour, present in many plants. It is made commercially from E160e or isolated from plants. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. suspicious-
E161aFlavoxanthinFlavoxanthin is a natural colour present is many plants. It is commercially prepared from Ranunculus sp. (Buttercup), and it yields a yellow colour. It is very rarely used. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg body weight. safe-
E161bLuteinLutein is a natural colour found in many green leafy vegetables, marigolds and egg yolks. It is prepared commercially from grass or nettles, and yields a yellow colour or Tagetes species. None known side effects.safe-
E161cCryptoxanthinCryptoxanthin is natural colour found in many plants including orange rind, papaya, egg yolk, and is commercially prepared from the Physalis species. None known side effects. It has some vitamin A activity.unknown-
E161dRubixanthin, Natural yellow 27Rubixanthin is a natural xanthophyll pigment found in rose hips. It is commerically prepared form Rosa (Rose) species and yields a red-orange colour. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg bodyweight. None known side effects.unknown-
E161eViolaxanthin, Zeaxanthin diepoxideViolaxanthin is a natural xanthophyll pigment found in a variety of plants including pansies. It is commercially prepared from the Viola species and yields an orange colour. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg bodyweight. None known side effects.unknown-
E161fRhodoxanthinRhodoxanthin is a xanthophyll pigment that is found in small quantities in a variety plants including Taxus baccata. It is commercially prepared from a number of different plant species and yields a purple colour. Daily intake: Up to 5 mg/kg bodyweight. None known side effects.unknown-
E161gCanthaxanthinCanthaxanthin is a natural colour prepared from mushrooms, crustaceans, and fish, although commercially it is produced synthetically from carotene. Daily intake: Up to 0.03 mg/kg bodyweight. No side effects known for the use in foods. Eye problems are common side effects when used in tanning pills.suspicious-
E161hZeaxanthinZeaxanthin is a natural colour present in many plants, although it is commercially prepared from several dried plant species and yields a yellow colour. Daily intake: Up to 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight. None known side effects.unknown-
E161iCitranaxanthinCitranaxanthin is a natural colour present in many plants. Commercially it is prepared from several dried plant species, and yields a yellow colour. None known side effects.unknown-
E161jAstaxanthinAstaxanthin is a natural colour found in yeast, crayfish, crustaceans, trout, microalgae, and bird feathers, although commercially it is prepared from both natural and synthetic sources. It provides the red colour of salmon meat and the red colour of cooked shellfish. The commercial production of astaxanthin comes from both natural and synthetic sources. As a food colouring in the United States and EU it is restricted to use in animal food. But there are many dietary supplement with astaxanthin describing it as a very powerful antioxidant, 'king of caroteonids' and describing many positive effects on human health.unknown-
E162Beetroot Red, BetaninBeetroot Red is a natural colour that is extracted from beetroot pulp and juice and yields a red colour. It is a light-sensitive colour therefore it is mainly used in frozen food due to its short shelf-life. Used in jelly, raw meat cuts, poultry, and artificially sweetened preserves. No side effects known. It is excreted unaltered in the urine. safe-
E163Anthocyanins (Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin, Grape peel extract, Anthocyan Mixture, Black currant extract)Anthocyanins are a large group of natural colours derived from many fruits, berries and flowers, although commercially they are extracted from red cabbage or grape skins. Temperature, light and pH can influence the colour. Daily intake: Up to 2.5 mg/kg body weight for anthocyan mixture. No side effects known. It can be consumed by vegans and vegetarians and all religious groups except Jews, as these products my be derived from grapes. safe-
E170Calcium carbonate, Calcium hydrogen carbonateCalcium carbonate is a naturally occuring mineral, in which the most common form is limestone. It can also be found in marble and corals, and yields a white colour. It is also used as an anti-caking agent in foods, and as a mineral supplement. Harmless in moderate doses.unknown-
E171Titanium dioxideTitanium dioxide is a naturally occurring mineral extracted from Ilmenite and yields a white colour. Is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index, in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. It has a wide range of applications, from paint to sunscreen to food colouring. Caution when titanium dioxide is in nanoparticles like in some sunscreens.unknown-
E172Iron oxides and iron hydroxides: Black iron oxide, Red iron oxide, Yellow iron oxideIron oxides are natural minerals that are commercially prepared from iron powder which yield yellow, red, orange, brown or black pigment colours. Only used for surface coating. The iron is not absorbed in the body. Daily Intake: Up to 0.5 mg/kg body weight .unknown-
E173AluminiumAluminum is a naturally occurring metal that is silvery-white in colour. It is smelted from the ore Bauxite. As a food additive it is used solely for external decoration where it can be found in the covering of dragées and the decoration of sugar-coated flour confectionery, in cake decorations and to give a silvery finish to pills and tablets. There is an increasing body of evidence to suggest that an accumulation of aluminium in the cells of the nervous system could be potentially toxic. It is found in abnormally high levels in the brain cells of Alzheimer's disease sufferers. May induce or intensify skeletal abnormalities such as osteoporosis.avoid-
E174SilverSilver is a naturally occurring mineral that is obtained by crushing silver bearing ore. Only used for surface coating. Long, regular consumption can lead to kidney damage and a blue-grey discolouration of the eyes, nose and nasal septum, throat and skin.avoid-
E175GoldGold is a naturally occurring yellow precious metal that is obtained by crushing gold-containing rocks. It is primarily used on food to give a metallic surface colour. Used in dairy-based products, fat spreads, processed fruits, breakfast cereals, pre-cooked pastas, bakery products, snack foods, chocolate, mustards, soybean-based products, mayonnaise, vinegars, and many more. Chemically, gold is very inactive and therefore virtually harmless, however as there is no dietary requirement it is probably best avoided.unknown-
E180Litholrubine BK, Pigment RubineLithol Rubine BK is a synthetic azo dye which yields a reddish colour and has the appearance of a red powder. Used in many products including custard mixes, yoghurt, jelly, flavoured milk, artificial sweetener base, canned icing, cheese, as well as being used in slimming aids and indigestion tablets. Only used for surface coating of cheese (normally not ingested). People who suffer from asthma, rhinitis or the skin disease urticaria may find their symptoms become worse following consumption of azo dyes. Banned in some countries.avoid-
E181TanninTannin is a natural colour that is derived from the twigs and nutgalls of oak trees. Commercially it is usually synthetically prepared from acorns. It yields a yellow to white colour. They have many beneficial effects but caution with high concentration. Tannins should be avoided by those suffering from aneamia, as they hinder the absorption of Iron. With the exception of tea, long-term and/or excessive use of herbs containing high concentrations of tannins is not recommended. Tannins are not found on list of EU approved additives but this does not mean they are not allowed in general - simply they are not classifed as food additives but as food ingridients. High concentrations may cause stomach problems or cause constriction of arteries. unknown-
E182Orcein, Orchil, Citrus Red2, Lacmus, ArchilDyes extracted from several species of lichen. Orcein is a reddish-brown dye, orchil is a purple-blue dye.unknown-


Please Help
We are now trying to collect data for the additives database. We need facts and we need links to organizations studying these substances or doing research on the subject.
If you have such information, please add comments in this page with the relevant links.
Thank you, everybody, in advance for your help.


Warning: Unknown: open(/home/content/74/6482274/tmp/sess_cfbtiqcrae022o3257ff617d85, O_RDWR) failed: No such file or directory (2) in Unknown on line 0

Warning: Unknown: Failed to write session data (files). Please verify that the current setting of session.save_path is correct () in Unknown on line 0